Now showing items 21-40 of 2298

    • Silly Rabbit, Manipulative Marketing Tactics Are For Kids! – Exploring The Effectiveness Of Ethical Children's Cereal Packaging

      Alves, Brian; Malloy, Mark; Melin, Erin (2022-05-01)
      Through packaging design, designers visually communicate the personality, feel, and quality of a product to potential consumers. When analyzing packaging in the cereal industry, there is a clear line drawn between the playful visual style of cereal targeted at children, and the mature visual style of cereal targeted at adults. Although children’s cereal products are being advertised successfully, the majority of products themselves are often high in sugar, contain artificial flavoring, and include other non-beneficial ingredients. Healthy children’s cereal products rarely receive the same level of engaging and story driven branding that competing unhealthy brands receive. Thus, unethical design standards are used to capitalize off of young children who are unable to fully comprehend advertising efforts. Rather than using design to persuade children into becoming consumers of unhealthy cereal products, the author explored the effects of these tactics when applied to a healthier alternative. She hypothesized that if influential design tactics from unhealthy cereal brands were applied to the packaging of a healthier cereal product, then children may feel visually influenced to try better-for-you options. The author gathered research related to children’s marketing tactics, used her findings to redesign a healthy cereal product, and conducted in person mini-interviews with elementary aged children to test her design against competing brands. Her primary hypothesis was supported, suggesting that children find healthier options with engaging packaging more appetizing and interesting that traditional healthy options. As a result of her study, the author hopes to highlight the importance of ethical design application, and in doing so, encourage positive change within the graphic design and children’s consumer goods industries.
    • Training For Success In The Age Of Globalization

      Mullane, Ken; McCormack, Jared (2022-05-01)
      Globalization has caused businesses to operate across varying cultures. Proper cultural training will maximize efficiency and minimize mistakes. This paper examines the relationship between Chinese and American cultural practices within this context. Based off of the cultural norms discussed and how they are specifically related to business, recommendations on how to implement training protocols to prepare employees for their new environment will be made.
    • A Poke And Prod Into The Attitudes Of College-Aged Students Towards The COVID-19 Vaccine

      Leong, Pamela; Moore, Sara; McCarthy, Morgan (2022-05-01)
      This research investigates the attitudes of college-aged students towards the COVID-19 vaccine. The prediction is that vaccine hesitancy towards the COVID-19 vaccines that exists in the college-aged population is due to misinformation, distrust in vaccines, and being uninformed. To test this hypothesis, a survey was conducted collecting information regarding vaccines and the COVID-19 pandemic from Salem State University students. The results could not confirm the hypothesis since no significant relationships were found due to limitations of the study. Although the hypothesis of this research could not be confirmed, this research provides a foundation for future research that may provide further insight into vaccine hesitancy in the college- aged student population.
    • New Constraints On Formation Of Orthogneiss In Southern Adirondacks Using Integrated Analysis Methods Of Petrology, Zircon U-Pb Geochronology And Whole Rock Geochemistry

      Toraman, Erkan; McCaffery, Kyle (2022-05-01)
      The Adirondack Mountains (ADK) form the southern part of the Grenville Province, a poly-deformed orogenic complex formed in the Mesoproterozoic during the formation of Rodinia. The ADK is subdivided into two domains, separated by the Carthage-Colton Mylonite Zone. The Lowlands are characterized by upper amphibolite-facies metasedimentary rocks, including marbles, evaporites, and volcanic units, whereas the Highlands are formed by granulite-facies meta igneous rocks and anorthosite-mangerite-charnockite-granite magmatic complex. A large suite of granulite-facies orthogneisses exposed in the Southern Highlands yields the oldest (>1.3 Ga) ages, however, those ages come from a limited number of outcrops. We present new petrological, geochemical, and geochronological results from several quartzofeldspatic orthogneiss units to better document the timing and tectonic setting of these rocks. All samples are mainly composed of quartz, felspar, biotite, pyroxene, and opaque minerals. Foliation and lineation are defined by elongated quartz ribbons and feldspar grains, or biotite laminae. High-temperature microstructures, such as flame perthites in feldspars or checkerboard extinction in quartz are commonly observed in thin sections. Major element analyses show that samples have calc-alkaline affinities, suggesting an arc environment. U-Pb zircon geochronology produced two age groups. 1150 Ma ages which are Shawinigan and 1350 Ma ages which are associated with pre-orogenic magmatism. Based on whole rock geochemistry the Shawinigan age rocks are associated with within plate magmatism and the 1350 Ma pre-orogenic magmatism is associated with magmatic arc activity.
    • Why Culturally Responsive Teaching & Why Now?: A Literature Review

      Cervoni, Cleti; Marotta, Ava (2022-05-01)
      The purpose of this research is to examine the role culturally responsive teaching (CRT) plays in providing equitable education for students. CRT has been defined by various scholars in the field, and the overlapping purpose is that the experience in the classroom must be reflective of the lived experiences outside the classroom with the goal of equity at the forefront. This research paints a clear picture of what CRT is and explores the position policy and law have on the ability to implement a culturally responsive practice. Many people ask the questions of why CRT and why now? The current student enrollment demographics in the United States does not reflect a White majority anymore; our student enrollment reflects a more diverse population of students that is composed of more students of color, including African American and Latinx students, which have historically been viewed as minority groups. District wide curriculum, school wide practice, and school environments should be in alignment and reflective of diverse groups of students and no longer just apply to White students. This review of current literature further supports CRT providing student-centered education while using cultural differences as leverage for all students to reach a high standard of success. Implications are provided for educators in K-12, policy makers or curriculum designers, and higher education teacher licensure program.
    • Social Isolation And Loneliness In The COVID-19 Pandemic

      Krugman, Martin; Lee, Emma (2022-05-01)
      The COVID-19 pandemic is a problem that the world has been facing for just about two and a half years. During this time, governments around the world implemented a variety of mandates – most prevalently lockdowns, quarantines, and other social isolation guidelines – in an attempt to curtail the spread of COVID-19. It makes intuitive sense to expect social isolation to have impacted loneliness levels in the general adult population during the first year of the pandemic, when social isolation related guidelines were widespread. Thus, the present study sought to conduct a search and review of the psychological literature related to the impact of social isolation and other related variables on loneliness in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Psychological databases and studies’ reference sections were searched until a pool of 11 studies was formed. Aside from loneliness, variables that were examined as predictors of loneliness in at least five of the 11 studies were chosen for discussion in the present literature review. Ultimately, it was found that loneliness was high and widespread during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic, and that a number of sociodemographic variables were risk factors for loneliness during this time. However, there were some contradictory findings in the studies regarding whether or not loneliness increased in the general population during this time. Thus, further longitudinal research investigating this phenomenon is warranted.
    • Tiny Earth: Studentsourcing Antibiotic Discovery

      Sprenkle, Amy; Marashio, Kristina (2022-05-01)
      There is a dire need for new antibiotics to treat antibiotic resistant bacterial infections. With the assistance of the course-based research experience Tiny Earth, isolates of antibiotic-producing bacteria discovered in BIO 304 Microbiology & Its Applications during Spring 2021 at Salem State University will be further characterized. This characterization may include performing 16S rDNA PCR identification of soil isolates, characterization of the secondary metabolites from these isolates by chemical extraction and testing the metabolites on ESKAPE safe relatives to confirm growth inhibitory activity, and testing the chemical extracts on eukaryotic systems, namely cultured mammalian cells for cytotoxic effects. The ultimate goal of this analysis is to contribute potentially novel antibiotic-producing soil bacterial species to the Tiny Earth database to help in the discovery of new antibiotics.
    • The Facets Of A Stage Manager: The Intersection Of Relationships And Responsibilities Of A Stage Manager

      Harvey, Michael M.; Lebeau, Cassandra (2022-05-01)
      A stage manager’s job comes with numerous responsibilities that all require a working relationship with so many other positions within production to make everything run smoothly. How do these responsibilities and relationships intersect? This project aims to discover how the responsibilities of a stage manager change according to the relationship to the position they are working with in the present moment. To discover how a stage manager's work may differ between relationships, I will be conducting interviews with different positions and disciplines in a production process, for example, directors, actors, multiple types of designers, props masters and technical directors, to learn what their relationship with a stage manager looks like and what types of responsibilities a stage manager has that pertains to their job. Additionally, a survey will be sent out for theatre professionals across different disciplines to take regarding their experiences in their relationships with stage managers based on their job position, as well as a survey to understand the stage manager’s perspective too. The surveys and interviews will be used to analyze stage manager responsibilities from both their own perspectives and the perspectives of others involved in the theatre making process. The conclusions drawn from the surveys and interviews will aid stage managers in understanding the complexities of their relationships within a production and the ways that their job intersects with those relationships.
    • The First School Shooter: Examining Multiple Causation In A Case Of Mass Murder

      Gow, David; Lowe, Madison (2022-05-01)
      Violence in schools and in public settings is an unfortunately growing problem in modern society, and understanding why and how these crimes happen is an integral part to preventing future occurrences. This thesis is a case study of Charles Whitman, the person recognized as perpetrating the first mass shooting on a college campus. This case study examines multiple causation theory using Charles Whitman’s case as an examine and guide for discussion. Areas of discussion include childhood abuse, drug use, self esteem, brain chemistry, social learning, locus of control, limbic system dysfunction, and cancer. It is argued through the case study that multiple causation theory provides the strongest, most encompassing explanation for why a person may end up committing a violent crime. Connections between sections, relation to the Whitman case, and discussion about how multiple causation theory is applicable to preventing similar cases are discussed.
    • Non-Binary People Don't Owe You Androgyny

      Alves, Brian; Lan, Wendy (2022-05-01)
      Research and study regarding gender and the spectrum is still fairly new. Gender is not definitive between a black and white scale. It’s not all or nothing. Gender exists on a spectrum where gender expression widely varies from person to person. This project reflects from my own experience of being a non-binary person who uses they/them pronouns. More and more studies have been done in recent years surrounding those who identify with being non-binary, non-gender conforming, or genderqueer. The purpose of this project is to examine the visual culture attached to how non-binary people are represented in mainstream media, and how there are both positive and negative outcomes from these representations. While there is more inclusion now more than ever in media and entertainment, the popular aesthetics we see don’t always reflect in every identifying non-binary person. It is also important to note that non-binary aesthetics differ from person to person. How one person chooses to present themselves, may not hold the same truth for another person. The project will be geared towards an epistemology approach with relation to social constructionism. Though my experience does not reflect that of all genderqueer/non-binary people, I know there is truth behind the critique surrounding pop culture and mainstream media and how non-binary people are portrayed. This zine is less of a guide to understanding the non-binary person and more focused on stigmas and stereotypes perpetuated by the visual culture in mass media.
    • How Our Relationships With Ourselves Impact Our Relationships With Others

      Mark, Christopher; Kollman-Veit, Chloe (2022-05-01)
      Out of the many theories as to why and how humans choose their long-term mates, two different models are explored in the present study. Evolutionary models examine the mating strategies used by the two sexes, focusing on the resources each sex can provide to their mate and any subsequent offspring. Alternatively, cognitive models explore the reasons behind a human’s thought processes and potential emotions that contribute to mate choice. Evolutionary models cannot explain all human mating, especially those who cannot reproduce heterosexually. Specifically, the LGBTQ+ community have been historically overlooked regarding these theories. The present study investigated whether human mate preference is most accurately described using a cognitive versus an evolutionary model. It was hypothesized that the mating preference for those who identify as being part of the LGBTQ+ community will be best explained by a cognitive model, while the mating preference of heterosexual participants will be best explained by an evolutionary model. Participants (N=97) were asked to rate certain traits, first for themselves and then for a potential future partner. Results showed that a cognitive model could explain mate preference for both LGBTQ+ and heterosexual individuals [linear regression: df = 1, F = 983.528, p < .0001, R2 = .912] Someone who rated a characteristic in themselves highly would rate that characteristic important in a partner highly as well. Those who recreate this study should try a random sampling method, and further, explore how people’s expression of their sexuality impacts their long-term mate preference.
    • Critique Of The Interpretations And Prospects Of Artificial Intelligence

      Marrero, Danny; Heffner, Rhaea (2022-05-01)
      The field of Artificial Intelligence has had a particular creative and productive period in recent years, drawing attention and further participation in its development from both researchers and business. Artificial Intelligence is said to be making progress on key benchmark tests and researchers are producing impressive and surprising machines. What interests us primarily as philosophers of Artificial intelligence is the interpretive meaning we give to these advances to the field, and whether human level general intelligence could ever be reproduced in a machine. In this paper, there will be a review of the dominant paradigms in the philosophy of artificial intelligence and various critique of their theories of mind and the views of artificial intelligence research and why they fail. There will be a proposal of a better meaning of intelligence and the Lovelace Test of machine intelligence that better encapsulates this meaning of intelligence. Lastly, there will be a demonstration of why serial computers have and will never pass the Lovelace Test and therefore never be intelligent.
    • Understanding The Rise Of Right Wing Populism

      Mulcare, Dan; Kroyak, Paul (2022-05-01)
      The United States, like many countries in the West today, is experiencing a wave of populism. While the populist left in the United States has certainly attracted thousands through the candidacy of Bernie Sanders, the populist right, or more accurately the influence of the populist right, has grown amazingly to the point where two-thirds of self-identified Republicans want Donald Trump to retain political power. More astonishingly, forty four percent of self-identified Republicans want Trump (who will be around seventy-eight) to run for president in 2024. Right-wing populism has been dominating the American political discussion since at least 2016, though the precursors to this movement go back further. This paper will discuss the underlying causes of the recent surge in right wing populism and the intentional strategies that right wing political actors use to both gain and retain support for the populist right in the United States. The rise of right wing populism cannot be attributed to a single person, movement, or event but rather a series of (1) a number of underlying economic plights caused by policies which favor the desires of the billionaire class and corporations (to pursue maximum profit) over working class and middle class people, (2) the economic and political manipulation at the hands of bourgeois political actors (such as the Koch family), and (3) a series of intentional political strategies used by right wing political actors to inspire outrage, garner support, and manipulate the political narrative with a particular interest in undermining traditional sources of authority and promoting nativist rhetoric. Mainly, many people in the United States are unable to live basic lives because of a constraining economic system and legislation which favor imminent and permanent indebtment, disinvestment from public goods, tremendous income inequality through financialization and wage theft, and corporate interests. This inability to live comfortably has caused disillusionment with the government for most Americans and is particularly salient with white men who are feeling the heat of unfettered capitalism in ways that contradict their view of the American exceptionalist framework. This disillusionment coupled with the infiltration of right wing views in the political and cultural views by presenting new sources of legitimate discourse and authority is capitalized on by right wing political actors through scare tactics and nativist/white nationalist rhetoric in order to achieve the political, cultural, and economic power to drive their movement.
    • Treating Patients With Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia (VAP): The Challenges Of Implementing Nursing Bundles Of Care

      Ebersole, Nancy; Guzman, Emilee (2022-05-01)
      A ventilator is any device used to support, assist, or control respiration. Ventilator Associated Pneumonia (VAP) can result from long term mechanical ventilation and causes a major life-threatening infection that has a high prevalence in patients in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) within our hospitals today. Despite having life-saving benefits, mechanical ventilation puts patients at a high risk of developing VAP; this increases the length of hospital stay, increases the cost of treatment, and decreases patient quality of life. Therefore, hospitals have implemented standardized preventative care interventions or “bundles” for mechanically ventilated patients in attempts to reduce the overall VAP prevalence, and infection rate. A systemic literature review was performed using the CINAHL Plus database to investigate the challenges posed to nurses when implementing VAP care bundle interventions in ICU patients. Major themes are (a) VAP bundles significantly reduce days on a ventilator and days in the ICU, (b) What is in the care bundle matters, (c) Nursing compliance is related to education and years of experience, (d) Barriers to nursing adherence is related to the use of bundles, (e) Institutional barriers that affect nursing adherence to the use of bundles. The registered nurse is in a key position to mitigate the risk of VAP. Hospitals must provide standardized nursing policies that emerge from interpersonal communication with bedside nurses to enforce Evidence Based Practices. In the future, to provide optimal care for mechanically ventilated patients, hospitals must take action to create changes to overcome institutional barriers which impact patient care.
    • La Brecha En El Renimiento Academico: Cómo Racismo Afecta A Los Estudiantes Latinx En La Escuela

      Reeds, Kenneth; Harkins, Kaylan (2022-05-01)
      Según el National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), la brecha de rendimiento se refiere a cuando "one group of students outperforms another group and the difference in average scores for the two groups is statistically significant." Los datos del NCES miden únicamente el desempeño de los estudiantes identificando brechas y mostrando tendencias a lo largo del tiempo, "however, a relationship that exists between achievement and another variable does not reveal its underlying cause, which may be influenced by a number of other variables" (NCES). En este estudio, los datos del NCES junto con el contexto histórico ayudan a comprender cómo el sistema de escuelas públicas de Estados Unidos ha llegado a donde está. Las encuestas desde la perspectiva de los maestros actuales que trabajan con estudiantes latinx muestran una imagen de la situación actual en las escuelas y ayudan a comprender hacia dónde deben ir las escuelas a partir de aquí. Esta investigación cierra la brecha entre el tamaño de estas brechas y los sistemas de racismo que las han creado. Esta investigación pone la brecha en el rendimiento académico en un contexto histórico en un intento por comprender la verdad detrás de por qué los estudiantes de minorías, específicamente los estudiantes latinos, se quedan atrás estadísticamente en la escuela. Luego, el estudio sugiere formas de comenzar a cerrar la brecha de una manera significativa que restaure la comunidad dentro de las escuelas y permita a todos los estudiantes la igualdad de oportunidades para aprender y tener éxito.
    • Perspectivas De Acceso Y Tratamiento Para La Salud Mental En La Comunidad Latinx De Los E.E.U.U.

      Dávila Gonçalves, Michele; Hames, Ash (2022-05-01)
      Addressing the mental health crisis in the United States for members of Latinx communities is a matter of sociocultural limitations. Through a qualitative essay written in Spanish, this study investigates the attitudes of Latinx people in the U.S. regarding mental health care and their identity through qualitative face-to-face interviews or via Zoom. I had a group of eight subjects who were between 20 and 35 years old, identified as Latinx while living in the U.S., and were students or employees of a Massachusetts public university. First, the subjects completed a written survey where behavior was evaluated on the search for treatment, knowledge of treatment and its value, stigma, discomfort with the emotions generated, access and cultural barriers. After subjects completed the survey, I used a script of questions to facilitate our discussion of reactions to the survey, personal and relevant anecdotes, and one's own experience when seeking treatment for mental health (example: "Have you gone to therapy?"). I performed a thematic analysis of the information recorded during interviews to look for the significance in regard to the area of psychology. In the second stage of analysis, I collected evidence from the interviews and written sources, and organized them into four themes with three sub-themes for each category. I investigate the four themes of access to resources, discrimination and intersectionality, relationships with family and society, and psychological observations, specifically regarding how public health and psychology workers can improve the effectiveness of mental health care for the Latinx community.
    • The Universal Museum And International Relations: Obstacles To The Full Realization Of Museums In Cultural Diplomacy

      Kyrou, Alexandros; Grishin, Alisa (2022-05-01)
      This paper will explore the evolving purpose of museums in the sphere of international relations. Reflecting on the intrinsic political potential of museums, a case will be made that they are valuable assets for international relations and, more specifically, cultural diplomacy. Contrasting their potential, the development of universal museums will highlight the current obstacles facing museums on their journey to becoming political actors. With the British Museum and AfricaMuseum as specific examples, the controversies facing museums are acknowledged through the lens of changing museological standards; these museums’ approaches to museology further exemplify which museums are currently equipped for diplomatic use. By the end of this paper, readers will be able to recognize that museums are evolving in the direction of further involvement in international relations and that the current obstacles to this development are enveloped in the issues of unsustainable relationship-making, traditional museology, and lack of museum ethics.
    • Sapphic Conceptions Of The Muse

      Valens, Keja; Giroux, Brittany (2022-05-01)
      From Dante to Gertrude Stein, some of the most prominent artists have found inspiration in another. This thesis explores what it is to be a muse and the role compulsory heterosexuality has in the conception of the passive muse in text as well as narrative cinema. Utilizing Audre Lorde's biomythography Zami a New Spelling of my Name and the film Portrait of Lady on Fire, I explore how these artists conceive of their muses. The difference between the passive muse conception and the various conceptions of these artists is necessary. Since the parameters of the passive muse conception do not account for women as content creators, much less lesbians as content creators, these artists cannot participate it in seeing as the convection doe not encompass them. Moreover, in this text and film, the muses experience the antithetical process to that of the passive muse. Which is to say they go from being an object in many regards to a subject. These works rely heavily on overarching themes of solidarity and the artists’ conception of their muses as extensions of themselves.
    • Revising Mandatory Minimums, Defund The Police, Or Drug Courts: How Best To Reform The United States Criminal Justice System

      Mulcare, Dan; Anonymous (2022-05-01)
      This paper addresses three methods of reform to the United States criminal justice system. It discusses mandatory minimum sentences, sentencing disparities, racial bias, drug courts, and the Defund the Police movement, analyzes the issues and benefits associated with each of these areas, and specifies the disproportionate impact many of the system’s flaws have had on people of color and poor communities. It argues that a combination of adjustments relative to mandatory minimum sentences, drug courts, and the Defund the Police movement would provide the best outcome for improving many of the issues within the system.
    • High Resolution Record Of Ice Rafted Detritus In Central North Atlantic Deep-Sea Sediment Core V30-100

      Cullen, James; Fyfe, Erin (2022-05-01)
      High resolution records from North Atlantic deep-sea sediments have been instrumental in documenting millennial scale climate fluctuations during Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 4-1, including variations in concentrations of ice rafted detritus (IRD) related to massive iceberg discharges from Northern Hemisphere ice sheets. We have analyzed 149 closely spaced samples from the top 2 meters of North Atlantic piston core V30-100 (44°06.5’N, 32°30’W) and produced detailed records of %IRD (%lithics=(#lithic grains >150 microns)/(#lithic grains >150 microns + #planktic foraminifera >150 microns)*100), IRD per gram (lithic grains >150 microns per gram sediment), and planktic forams per gram (whole planktic foraminifers >150 microns per gram sediment). %IRD reveals 4 distinct intervals of >80% IRD coupled with consistently very low forams per gram at 40-48cm, 80-88cm, 137-149cm, and 179-184cm separated by long intervals of significantly lower IRD (<20%). The IRD per gram (lithics per gram) is consistently above 3000 lithics per gram during the intervals of high %IRD but show considerably more variability. %IRD and lithics per gram show a distinct lack of correlation at higher values. This is likely due to the influence of changes in planktic foram production affecting our proxies of IRD input. Upon analysis of our high-resolution IRD records with the low-resolution carbonate record from V30-100 as well as our detailed comparison to other IRD records from the Central North Atlantic (Hemming, 2003) suggests that the 4 intervals of high %IRD in V30-100 correspond to well documented Heinrich events that occurred in the North Atlantic during the last glacial interval (MIS 4-2). We have correlated the high IRD event centered around 180cm to H5, and the interval centered around 145cm to H4. The IRD events centered around 85cm and 45cm have been correlated to H2 and H1, respectively. If these correlations are correct, H3 has not been recorded in V30-100.