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dc.contributor.advisorMagazzu, Tammien_US
dc.contributor.authorEarl, Lexus
dc.creatorEarl, Lexusen_US
dc.date2021-11-24T14:05:38.000en_US
dc.date.accessioned2021-11-29T11:30:01Z
dc.date.available2021-11-29T11:30:01Z
dc.date.issued2014-05-17en_US
dc.date.submitted2014-07-11T07:48:37-07:00en_US
dc.identifierhonors_theses/16en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/20.500.13013/636en_US
dc.description.abstractThe new progestin, levonorgestrel, delivered via an intrauterine system or subdermal implant is showing promising signs of preventing pregnancy, decreasing excessive bleeding with menstruation, and returning fertility when removed (Backman, 2004). As promising as the levonorgestrel parental systems are, side effects are a common cause for concern and are a large reason for premature removal (Coukell & Balfour, 1998). Other than prolonged bleeding from insertion, and heavier periods for some women, other side effects have been observed such as weight gain, mood changes, dizziness and persistent, headache (Backman, 2004). With headache being one of the primary reasons for premature removal, previous literature has shown strong antiestrogenic activity among the pharmacodynamics of levonorgestrel (Schindler, 2003), which in turn may be the causative agent for the headache experienced among users. Given that headaches are mediated by vasodilation and vasoconstriction, the antiestrogenic activity of levonorgestrel is hypothesized to affect estrogen mediated vasodilation (Schindler, 2003). As one of the strongest antagonist of estrogen, levonorgestrel has also been discussed to affect the oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol impacting the endothelium of the cardiac vasculature (Zhu, Bonet, & Knopp, 2000). This review aims to identify how levonorgestrel could be the causative agent for the physiologic phenomenon of a headache experienced among users so that medical professionals and drug manufacturers can be guided towards developing and prescribing a more effective and tolerable birth control option.en_US
dc.titleThe Mirena Migraine - A Review of the Pharmacodynamics of Levonorgestrel and Its Implications in Women's Healthen_US
dc.typeThesisen_US
dc.legacy.pubstatuspublisheden_US
dc.description.departmentNursingen_US
dc.date.displayMay-14en_US
dc.type.degreeBachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN)en_US
dc.legacy.pubtitleHonors Thesesen_US
dc.legacy.identifierhttps://digitalcommons.salemstate.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1015&context=honors_theses&unstamped=1en_US
dc.legacy.identifieritemhttps://digitalcommons.salemstate.edu/honors_theses/16en_US
dc.subject.keywordlevonorgestrelen_US
dc.subject.keywordprogestinen_US
dc.subject.keywordheadacheen_US
dc.subject.keywordmigraineen_US
dc.subject.keywordLDL cholesterol oxidationen_US
dc.subject.keywordatherosclerosisen_US
dc.subject.keywordantiestrogenicen_US
dc.subject.keywordMirena LNG-IUDen_US
dc.subject.keywordnitric oxideen_US


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