Now showing items 21-40 of 62

    • People Behind The Parks: The Buffalo Soldiers

      Medeiros, Kyle; Greeno, Cam; Dick, Grady; Sweener, Trevor; Desmond, Timmy; Thebado, Ryan; Bloom, Katherine (2022-05-05)
      The Buffalo soldiers were initially formed to help the U.S. congress rebuild the country after the Civil War. The Buffalo soldiers were tasked with fighting the “Indian Wars” on the western front. Amongst their jobs, they were among the first park rangers in our national parks. Their impact on the development of the west cannot be understated.
    • New Constraints On Formation Of Orthogneiss In Southern Adirondacks Using Integrated Petrology, Zircon U-Pb Geochronology, And Whole Rock Geochemistry

      McCaffery, Kyle; Toraman, Erkan; Chiarenzelli, Jeffery R.; Toraman, Erkan (2022-05-05)
      The Adirondack Mountains (ADK) form the southern part of the Grenville Province, a poly-deformed orogenic complex formed in the Mesoproterozoic during the formation of Rodinia. The ADK is subdivided into two domains, separated by the Carthage-Colton Mylonite Zone. The Lowlands are characterized by upper amphibolite-facies metasedimentary rocks, including marbles, evaporites, and volcanic units, whereas the Highlands are formed by granulite-facies meta igneous rocks and anorthosite-mangerite-charnockite-granite magmatic complex. A large suite of granulite-facies orthogneisses exposed in the Southern Highlands yields the oldest (>1.3 Ga) ages, however, those ages come from a limited number of outcrops. We present new petrological, geochemical, and geochronological results from several quartzofeldspatic orthogneiss units to better document the timing and tectonic setting of these rocks. All samples are mainly composed of quartz, felspar, biotite, pyroxene, and opaque minerals. Foliation and lineation are defined by elongated quartz ribbons and feldspar grains, or biotite laminae. High-temperature microstructures, such as flame perthites in feldspars or checkerboard extinction in quartz are commonly observed in thin sections. Major element analyses show that samples have calc-alkaline affinities, suggesting an arc environment. U-Pb zircon geochronology indicated two age groups. 1150 Ma which is the Shawinigan Orogeny and 1350 Ma which aligns with known pre-orogenic magmatic activity.
    • A Poke And Prod Into The Attitudes Of College-Aged Students Towards The COVID-19 Vaccine

      McCarthy, Morgan; Leong, Pamela (2022-05-05)
      This research investigates the attitudes of college-aged students towards the COVID-19 vaccine. The prediction is that vaccine hesitancy towards the COVID-19 vaccines that exists in the college-aged population is due to misinformation, distrust in vaccines, and being uninformed. To test this hypothesis, a survey was conducted collecting information regarding vaccines and the COVID-19 pandemic from Salem State University students. The results could not confirm the hypothesis since no significant relationships were found due to the limitations of the study. Although the hypothesis of this research could not be confirmed, this research provides   foundation for future research.
    • The First School Shooter: Examining Multiple Causation In A Case Of Mass Murder

      Lowe, Madison; Gow, David (2022-05-05)
      Case study of Charles Whitman, examining multiple avenues of causation leading up to a school shooting at the University of Austin Texas. Social, environmental, behavioral, and biological factors are discussed in relation to how they influenced Whitman to commit the shooting.
    • The Medicinal Properties Of Limonium Discovered In Its Endophytic Species

      Matthews-Donawa, Kaleesha; MacTaylor, Christine (2022-05-05)
      The endophytic species of Limonium (Sea Lavender) was tested for its medicinal properties. Sea lavender was collected from the salt marsh located near the Salem State University campus. Endophytes are often bacterium or fungus that lives within a plant for at least part of its life without causing apparent harm.1 Endophytes may benefit host plants by preventing pathogenic organisms from colonizing them. Endophytic fungi were derived from the harvested stem and roots of the plant. The endophytes were analyzed and displayed antibacterial properties for Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The stem samples from the plant were also analyzed via LC-MS to identify medicinal compounds within the endophytic species. As a result, twelve bioactive metabolites were identified with anticancer, antibacterial, anti-anxiety, anti-dysrhythmic, and anti-depressant properties. Sea lavender is a plant that grows in and can be found in salt marsh locations. They are long-lived perennials that will grow in many different climates. Sea lavender plants are most often planted in outdoor gardens for their attractive flowers. Sea lavender is known to have medicinal properties in its endophytic species. Different Limonium species are used in Chinese, European, Latin America, and Arabian traditional medicines for the treatment of different health problems, such as cardiovascular and inflammatory problems. This research identifies which compounds are found and used in this plant.
    • Characterizing The Petrology & Geochemistry Of The Nahant Gabbro & Salem Gabbro-Diorite

      Kopellas, Ava; Mana, Sara; Mana, Sara (2022-05-05)
      The Avalon Terrane formed during the late Proterozoic as a volcanic arc that was originally part of Gondwana and later rifted away from the supercontinent. During this rifting process, the Nahant Gabbro (NG) formed ~488 Ma, and later stages of rifting within Avalon led to the intrusion of the Salem Gabbro-Diorite (SGD; 431-425 Ma) and other plutons as part of the Mid-Paleozoic plutonic belt. Avalon gradually made its way across the Atlantic and collided with the modified margin of Laurentia, contributing to the formation of the Appalachian Mountains. The SGD and the NG outcrops are adjacent and due to their similarities in rock types, they can be hard to distinguish in the field. In this study, we collected five samples in four different localities (Nahant, Marblehead, Highland pluton, and Forest River pluton) to establish possible differences in petrology and geochemistry. Petrographic and modal analyses are performed on thin sections, while major and trace elements are obtained via whole-rock XRF and LA-ICP-MS. The NG is phaneritic with coarse plagioclase, pyroxene, and amphibole. Samples collected from Marblehead, Highland Pluton, and Forest River display a porphyritic-phaneritic texture with plagioclase phenocrysts. Finally, a component of the Highland Pluton is phaneritic, although fine-grained, and displays a “dalmatian” pattern with clusters of mafic minerals. On a TAS diagram, samples from Nahant and Marblehead are basalts while the samples from the Highland Pluton and Forest River plot along a trend from basalt to trachyandesite. Samples from Nahant, Marblehead, and the dalmatian sample from the Highland Pluton are consistently more primitive with high MgO, low SiO2, and are depleted in incompatible trace elements as compared to the SGD. At this time we are unable to conclusively discriminate between the two plutonic bodies confirming the significance of this study.
    • Social Isolation And Loneliness In The COVID-19 Pandemic

      Lee, Emma; Krugman, Martin (2022-05-05)
      A literature review was conducted on the effects of social isolation and other variables on loneliness in the COVID-19 pandemic. It was found that loneliness was prevalent - but did not seem to generally increase - in times of social isolation during the first year of the pandemic. It was also found that some additional variables influenced the prevalence of loneliness during times of social isolation in the first year of the pandemic.
    • Understanding The Rise Of Right Wing Populism In The United States

      Kroyak, Paul; Mulcare, Daniel (2022-05-05)
      The United States, like many countries in the West today, are experiencing a wave of populism. Right wing populism, more specifically, has grabbed a hold of the United States through the rise and continued popularity of Donald Trump. Though there has been much discussion on this topic in the public sphere of discussion, I believe it pertinent that leftist critiques of subjects fascistic in manner are thoroughly discussed and leftist positions shown and normalized. This research paper will provide explanations for the rise of right wing populism as well as the methods which right wing political actors use to retain and excite their followers. This paper draws on many sources from written texts, news articles, academic journals, as well as direct quotes from videos from speeches. Using these sources I purpose what I believe are the most likely reasons that right wing populism was able to rise and sustain itself in the United States. Right wing populism has grown rapidly and has sustained its numbers because of the (1)crumbling infrastructure and livability of the United States, (2)the political, economic, and social influence of affluent right wing actors, and (3) the intentional political and social tactics employed by right wing actors such as manufacturing a culture war built on outage, successfully “othering” marginalized groups, and controlling the political dialogue through the media.
    • How Our Relationships With Ourselves Impact Our Relationships With Others

      Kollman-Veit, Chloe; Mark, Christopher (2022-05-05)
      Out of the many theories as to why and how humans choose their long-term mates, two different models are explored in the present study. Evolutionary models explore the mating strategies used by the two sexes, focusing on the resources each sex can provide to their mate and any subsequent offspring to increase the probability of sexual reproduction in said offspring. Alternatively, cognitive models explore the reasons behind a human’s thought processes and potential emotions that contribute to mate choice. Evolutionary models cannot explain all human mating, especially those who cannot reproduce heterosexually. Specifically, the LGBTQ+ community have been historically overlooked regarding these theories. The present study investigated whether human mate preference is most accurately described using a evolutionary versus a cognitive model. It was hypothesized that the mating preference for those who identify as being part of the LGBTQ+ community will be best explained by a cognitive model, while the mating preference of heterosexual participants will be best explained by an evolutionary model. Participants (N=97) were asked to rate certain traits, first for themselves and then for a potential future partner. Results showed that a cognitive model could explain mate preference for both LGBTQ+ and heterosexual individuals [linear regression: df = 1, F = 983.528, p < .0001, R2 = .912] Someone who rated a characteristic in themselves highly would rate that characteristic important in a partner highly as well. Those who recreate this study should try a random sampling method, and further, explore how people’s expression of their sexuality impacts their long-term mate preference
    • Exploring The Medicinal Properties Of Juniperus Virginiana L.

      Jor, Ryan; MacTaylor, Christine (2022-05-05)
      Juniper endophytes/metabolites are extracted and analyzed for medicinal properties with LCMS. Four types of bacteria provide a test for inhibition with our juniper endophytes/metabolites.
    • Medicinal Uses Of Rhus Coriaria Aka Sumac

      Jones, Meghan; MacTaylor, Christine (2022-05-05)
      Rhus coriaria or Sumac is a plant which is most known as being used as a spice and a dye. In addition to this, it also has biological activity. It has been used as an antioxidant, antimicrobial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, an anticancer.
    • The Molecular Pathophysiology Of Late Onset Alzheimer's Disease

      Jeffries, Fred; Chen, Changqing (2022-05-05)
      Alzheimer's Disease is a progressive degenerative neurological disease that is characterized by the insidious loss of memory, with the degree of cognitive impairment worsening over progressive decades. It has distinct neuropathological findings that define the disease, including, amyloid (Aβ) plaques, neuritic plaques, and neurofibrillary tangles composed of filamentous tau proteins. The accumulation and deposition of Aβ peptide in the brain has been long been suspected to be a primary cause of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aβ plaques provide the nexus for the formation of neuritic plaques. Microglia interacts with the neuritic plaques, releasing cytokines and reactive species that may be responsible for dysconformation of tau, leading to neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). Tau pathology, NFTs, and neuronal death are likely the cause of cognitive deterioration in AD. The molecular pathophysiology of AD demonstrates a complex interplay between production and clearance, stimulation and overstimulation. The result is a disease whose cure needs to take multiple different forms, including targeting Aβ accumulation or clearance, immune modulation, tau interaction accumulation.
    • Sport Related Performance Anxiety In Collegiate Student Athletes: Examining The Effects Of COVID-19

      Hogan, Gracie; Schoen, Christopher (2022-05-05)
      This study uses a combination of survey instruments and qualitative measures to analyze and seek to understand levels of performance anxiety in division 3 student athletes and how the Covid-19 pandemic has impacted this.
    • The Racialization Of Gumball Waterson

      Hoard, Emilyann; Hains, Rebecca (2022-05-05)
      This was a report on the racialization of Gumball Waterson from the Amazing World of Gumball.
    • Treating Patients With Ventilator Associated Pneumonia (VAP): The Challenges Of Implementing Nursing Bundles Of Care

      Guzman, Emilee M.; Ebersole, Nancy (2022-05-05)
      A ventilator is any device used to support, assist, or control respiration (inclusive of the weaning period) through the application of positive pressure to the airway when delivered via an artificial airway, specifically an oral/nasal endotracheal or tracheostomy tube. ​The Registered Nurse is in a key position to mitigate the risk of VAP due to their constant presence at the bedside and their key role in providing direct patient care. ​VAP is preventable, and application of Evidence-Based Practice (EVP) in the daily care of mechanically ventilated ICU patients is vital in decreasing infection rates. By identifying the challenges of implementing nursing bundles of care, VAP rates will decrease and the health promotion and prevention of VAP will increase. Nursing bundles of care decrease length of hospital stay and treatment costs, and increase quality of life.
    • Using δ13c And δ15n Stable Isotopes To Identify Suspects By Race/Ethnicity

      Haughton, Anton; Veresh, Renee; Hanson, Lindley (2022-05-05)
      Identification of trace evidence from a suspect or victim is instrumental to accurately linking a suspect to a crime. Hair is a common type of trace evidence but is largely class evidence in that color and texture are not individualizing characteristics. However, because no two people have the same diet, and because the δ13C and δ14N stable isotopic composition of hair and fingernails are diet-dependent, the determination of δ13C and δ14N in hair has the potential to play a pivotal role in individualizing hair samples. δ13C is influenced by the amount and type of C3 and C4 plants in a diet, whereas δ14N is influenced by the trophic level of organisms consumed. This study investigates the ability to distinguish hair samples via their isotopic composition, and any possible influence of ethnicity on isotopic composition. Samples were obtained from 8 individuals of varying ethnicity (Black, White, Asian, and Hispanic) in Massachusetts.
    • D.O.S.E.

      Gomes, Aquissana; Miller, Betsy (2022-05-05)
      D.O.S.E., a Capstone in Dance project, explores the relationship of dance to joy. This choreographic work premiered at the dance program's production of Dances in the Raw on April 25, 2022.
    • Comprehensive Implementation Of Trauma Informed Care In Medical Settings: A Preliminary Framework (Phase One)

      Geary-Souza, Martine K.; Sierra-Diez, Neitza; Vincent, Rebecca; Pizzi, Samantha; Saltikoff, Nathalie (2022-05-05)
      Adverse childhood experiences, or ACEs, are traumatic events that occur in childhood (0-17 years) (Centers for Disease Control [CDC], 2021). According to The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) Study, conducted by the CDC and Kaiser Permanente, approximately 61% of adults surveyed across 25 states indicated that they had experienced at least one type of ACE, while close to 1 in 6 had experienced 4 or more types (Centers for Disease Control [CDC], 2021). Given the prevalence of ACEs, or trauma, in our society, it is reasonable to extrapolate to the importance of addressing it universally in our culture. Since childhood trauma has been linked to several negative health outcomes (CDC, 2021), the comprehensive integration of services aimed at treating trauma must include health care systems with global staff participation – including but not limited to physicians, administrative staff, front of house staff, and nurses. This study aimed to create a preliminary, comprehensive framework for the medical implementation of Trauma Informed Care (TIC) through surveys of medical professionals' opinions, understanding, and current practices regarding TIC. A purposive snowball sampling method was used to recruit participants. The inclusion criteria for the study was that participants were 18 years of age and older and worked in the health care field. Seventeen individuals completed an anonymous online survey on SurveyMonkey. There was a mix of quantitative (Likert scale) questions and open-ended questions. Both EXCEL and SPSS were used for the data analysis. Qualitative data was analyzed using content analysis. Forty-one percent of the sample were Physicians and eighteen percent were Nurse Practitioners. Twenty-nine percent of respondents reported having a personal history of trauma. Although the sample size was small, enough qualitative data was collected to make initial recommendations for the integration of TIC into health care settings. Findings also indicated that practitioners with a personal history of trauma had a higher level of confidence in their competency to utilize TIC standards of care.
    • Petrology, Geochemistry, And Tectonic Significance Of Mafic Dikes In Salem, MA

      Gaouette, Valerie; Toraman, Erkan; Toraman, Erkan (2022-05-05)
      Petrological and geochemical analysis of mafic dikes provides necessary information on the mantle-lithosphere interaction and overall geodynamic setting during magma formation. Numerous mafic dikes have been reported in the basement rocks of the Avalon terrane in Massachusetts. We present new petrological and geochemical results from mafic dikes intruding the Salem Gabbro-Diorite at the Salem Willows Park and Winter Island locations in Salem, MA. Field mapping reveals the mafic dikes are NE oriented with distinct margins in the Salem Gabbro-Diorite. Major element geochemistry indicates dikes are silica-undersaturated and lean tholeiitic, suggestive of a within-plate tectonic setting. Tectonic discriminant diagrams show the dikes plot between enriched mid-ocean ridge basalts and ocean island basalts. The spider diagrams display a diagnostic pattern of ocean-island basalts, and an abundance of incompatible trace elements such as Ba and Rb, which suggest an enriched magma source for these dikes. The dikes at the Salem Willows appear to corroborate best with the Mesozoic dike swarm of coastal Massachusetts as described in Ross (2020) using orientation, textural characteristics, and geochemical analysis. These dikes may further be related to what is known as the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) (Dorais, 2005), a Mesozoic-age flood basalt province which extends down coastal Canada and New England. Future K-Ar dating could be performed in order to conclusively determine a precise age for these dikes.
    • High Resolution Record Of Ice Rafted Detritus In Central North Atlantic Deep-Sea Sediment Core V30-100

      Fyfe, Erin; Cullen, James; Churchill, Alyson; DeBellis, Korie; McManus, Jerry; Cullen, James (2022-05-05)
      High-resolution records from North Atlantic deep-sea sediments have been instrumental in documenting millennial-scale climate fluctuations during Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 4-1, including variations in concentrations of ice-rafted detritus (IRD) related to massive iceberg discharges from Northern Hemisphere ice sheets. We have analyzed 149 closely spaced samples from the top 2 meters of North Atlantic piston core V30-100 (44°06.5’N, 32°30’W) and produced detailed records of %IRD (%lithics=(#lithic grains >150 microns)/(#lithic grains >150 microns + #planktic foraminifera >150 microns)*100), IRD per gram (lithic grains >150 microns per gram sediment), and planktic forams per gram (whole planktic foraminifers >150 microns per gram sediment). %IRD reveals 4 distinct intervals of >80% IRD coupled with consistently very low forams per gram at 40-48cm, 80-88cm, 137-149cm, and 179-184cm separated by long intervals of significantly lower IRD (<20%). The IRD per gram (lithics per gram) is consistently above 3000 lithics per gram during the intervals of high %IRD but show considerably more variability. %IRD and lithics per gram show a distinct lack of correlation at higher values. This is likely due to the influence of changes in planktic foram production affecting our proxies of IRD input. Upon analysis of our high-resolution IRD records with the low-resolution carbonate record from V30-100 as well as our detailed comparison to other IRD records from the Central North Atlantic (Hemming, 2004 and Surette et al., 2020) suggests that the 4 intervals of high %IRD in V30-100 correspond to well documented Heinrich events that occurred in the North Atlantic during the last glacial interval (MIS 4-2). We have preliminarily correlated the high IRD event centered around 180cm to H5, and the interval centered around 145cm to H4. The IRD events centered around 85cm and 45cm have been correlated to H2 and H1, respectively. If these correlations are correct, H3 has not been recorded in V30-100.