Now showing items 21-40 of 42

    • Racial Injustices: The Menstrual Health Experiences of African American and Latina Women

      Moore, Sara B.; Martinez, L. Virginia (2020-05-01)
      The goal of this research is to examine racial disparities among college-age African American and Latina women with a focus on menstrual health issues and their experiences with health care. This research includes a literature review that explores the existence of institutionalized racism and sexism in medicine, giving attention to reproductive justice and ultimately menstrual justice for women of color. It also entails four semi-structured, in-depth interviews with African American and Latina women, through which I identified four common themes: 1) the normalization of pain, symptoms, and experiences, 2) feelings of not being taken seriously by medical providers, 3) the disruption of daily activities and self-image, and 4) feelings of frustration that treatments are not working. Previous research supports the findings that women of color are disproportionately disadvantaged compared to their White counterparts in terms of birth outcomes and infant mortality, quality of medical care, and their relationship with medical professionals. Although the area of menstrual justice is particularly understudied, this research sheds light on the experiences of women of color who have sought medical care for menstrual health conditions in the hopes that their health care experiences will not go unnoticed or be dismissed. Medical professionals can draw on this study to address the problem of racial disparities in medical treatment, menstrual health, and health care in general to provide a meaningful and effective path for women of color.
    • Why Incorporating Translanguaging Practices Into English As A Second Language Programs Will Help Boost English Proficiency And Build Confident English Learners

      Gonzalez, Melanie; Neault, Jillian (2020-05-01)
      English as a second language programs often implement other ways of teaching that do not allow for students to use their native language, requiring the use of English only using various instructional strategies to teach language and content. Translanguaging is a practice allows for students to be able to learn English as well as keeping their identity and culture through using their native language (L1) alongside English. This approach helps students to still learn English and be able to communicate with both their teachers and families at home about their schoolwork. Therefore, this thesis explores educational research done on translanguaging and the benefits that can come from using this way of teaching. To complete this thesis, I performed a literature review in the form of a pedagogical article to show the benefits of translanguaging.
    • Are Future Teachers Ready To Work With Students With Anxiety Disorders?

      Gonsalves, Joanna; Vallario, Katrina (2019-05-01)
      Childhood anxiety has garnered attention over the past couple of decades due to high prevalence rates and early onset (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2013). This study investigated future educators’ attitudes and knowledge regarding childhood anxiety disorders. An original survey was created and administered to education students at a state school in Massachusetts to assess their knowledge about anxiety, gauge their exposure to childhood anxiety, and measure attitudinal ratings about teachers’ role in addressing childhood anxiety. Statistical analyses were conducted to see whether there were any curricular or experiential predictors of participants’ attitudes or knowledge. No statistically significant correlations were found. However, almost all of the participants acknowledged that childhood anxiety was something that will be seen in their classrooms, and nearly half of participants responded with low confidence levels in regard to being adequately prepared to service children with anxiety.
    • Examining Sanity Testing: Past, Present, And Future

      Gonsalves, Joanna; Marchionda, Claudia (2019-05-01)
      This thesis explores the use and validity of sanity testing in the United States. The central question is how the legal determination of criminally insanity impacts the outcomes for accused individuals. The primary sources used in this thesis include federal laws and regulations, forensic psychology research, and case studies. The history of the insanity plea and the role of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders within the courtroom are explored. Also considered are current sanity testing practices, with emphasis on the consequences of type I and type II errors. My research suggests that these definitions are not consistent among the different organizations involved. The sanity plea is reevaluated when the public becomes involved and the nature of society changes. Implications for such inconsistencies are discussed.
    • Improving Tier-1 Mental Health Programs In Schools

      Aparicio, Carlos; LeClerc, Hannah K. (2019-05-01)
      Tier-1 mental health education programs are designed to educate young people about general mental health issues in school settings and everyday life situations. In practice, however, they have not been efficient at delivering a generalized mental health education to individual’s ages 5-18 years old, because these programs do not consider socioeconomic, sociocultural, and gender differences; and these factors are important to effectively educate individuals. The thesis of the present study is that if these factors are included in the design and implementation of tier-1 programs, they will succeed in educating individuals about mental health issues. Accordingly, the present study reviewed research assessing socioeconomic, sociocultural and gender factors in determining the successful implementation of tier-1 mental educational programs. The main findings and their implications to the development and implementation of tier-1 programs are discussed in this paper.
    • Comparing Individual Differences In Literacy Development In Pre-Kindergarteners And Kindergarteners: A Literature Review And A Proposal For Future Research

      Miller, Patrice; Harris, Morgan (2019-05-01)
      The thesis, Comparing Individual Differences in Literacy Development in Pre-Kindergarteners and Kindergarteners, is a literature review that examines some of the research literature, focusing on the different aspect’s researchers examined related to literacy development. The articles focused heavily on children’s self-concept and the home literacy environment that the parents provide for the child. This thesis describes in depth five articles with a connection to either the home literacy environment, or children’s self-concept. The self-concept articles specifically examined how children viewed their own competency in completing school-related tasks. The articles reviewed were chosen because of their connection to the literacy environment and children’s success. From the analysis of these articles a study is proposed in which the home literacy environment would be evaluated, and children would be asked questions related to their self-competence. These two measures would then be related to children’s reading test scores to examine the relative contribution of each of the two predictors to literacy. In addition to the detailed discussion of previous work, this thesis describes in depth the measures that would be used in this study, the HOME, the Harter Self-Competence scale and school measures such as the BAS and PALs.
    • Positive And Negative Effects Of Inclusive Education On Social Development For Students With Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Literature Review

      Scott, Kristina; Coelho, Emily (2019-05-01)
      This research reviewed available literature on the positive and negative effects of educational inclusion on social development for students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Autism Spectrum Disorder is a spectrum of disorders characterized by deficits in social skills and nonverbal behaviors. With the prevalence of ASD steadily increasing, students with ASD are more frequently being placed in inclusive education classrooms among their peers without ASD. Research studies conveyed that positive inclusion harbors social inclusion, trained educators and cooperation from peers who are non-disabled. Other studies conveyed that inclusion can be detrimental to a student with ASD’s social development and success. Results of this literature review suggests that there are several supports required within an inclusive education environment in order for social developmental progress to be made for students with ASD.
    • Identification Of Psychosocial Factors In The Development Of Serial Killers In The United States

      Gonsalves, Joanna; Brennan, Tiffany (2019-05-01)
      The purpose of this study is to attempt to identify risk factors associated with serial killing. This line of investigation can aid criminal justice and mental health professionals in preventing murders in the future. Twenty-five case studies of serial killers convicted in the United States between 1967 and 2016 were examined using newspapers, books, biographies, and social science peer reviewed articles. The analyses focused on demographic, psychological, and sociological factors, such as mental illness and criminality, that may have predisposed the sample to become serial killers. The results of the study are discussed in terms of prevention, including early detection of risk factors, treatment, and improving social systems currently in place.
    • Teachers’ Perceptions Of Students Based On Socioeconomic Status: A Literature Review

      Gonsalves, Joanna; Noonan, Anne; Condie, Cami; Rowe, Chelsea (2018-01-01)
      The purpose of this research was to determine whether teachers’ perceptions of students are affected by students’ socioeconomic status (SES). It was hypothesized that teachers perceive students from lower socioeconomic classes as less capable than students from higher socioeconomic status, and that teachers unconsciously set lower achievement expectations for low SES students, based on these original perceptions. All empirical studies conducted in the last decade on the topic were reviewed, including studies that used both naturalistic methods and those that used hypothetical scenarios. The hypothesis was supported through the analysis of past research, finding the presence of classism in teacher perceptions. Implications for teacher training are discussed to help address the biases revealed in this research.
    • N-Queens Problem

      Crowe, Kathi; Reynolds, Ashley (2018-01-01)
      Using combinatorics in this paper, we will discuss three different methods in solving the n-queens problem. We will find the maximum and minimum number of queens we can place on an n x n chessboard. Also, we will use latin squares, latin rectangles and circulant matrices as another method of placing the queens on a chessboard.
    • Factors That Affect The Stigma Of Mental Illness In College Students

      Krugman, Martin; Lyons, Teresa; Miller, Benjamin; Campbell, Colleen (2018-01-01)
      Nearly 50% of American 18-24 years olds are enrolled in college at least part time, and these years in college are often difficult, stressful times for students. In a study of over 200,000 first year college students, Iarovici (2014) found that students are reporting the lowest levels of emotional health in 25 years. Blanco et al. (2008) found that in a sample of students with mental illnesses, fewer than 25% sought treatment in the year before the survey, even though they were struggling, and this may be due to the stigma of mental illness. Stigma, according to Goffman (1963), is the application of negative characteristics to a person or group of people. This study sought to examine factors that may affect the stigma of mental illness. Variables examined included perceived public stigma, personal stigma, social desirability, locus of control, and stigma of depression specifically. The results showed a significant correlation between perceived public stigma of mental illness and perceived public stigma of depression and a significant correlation between personal stigma of mental illness and personal stigma of depression.
    • Future Educators' Preparation And Well-Being: A Qualitative Study

      Noonan, Anne; Miller, Patrice; Krugman, Martin; Sobotka, Victoria (2017-05-01)
      This qualitative interview study examines the retrospective accounts of junior and senior undergraduate students enrolled in a teacher preparation program. A phenomenological research approach (Creswell, 2013) was utilized during the data collection process. Ten students were interviewed to explore their experiences with test anxiety, their experience with test preparation methods for the Massachusetts Test for Educator Licensure (MTEL), and their overall well-being during their academic experiences. Four thematic categories emerged after the completion of the data analysis: variance in preparedness, discrepancies in informed attitudes, positive emotions, and negative emotions. These thematic categories were further analyzed to determine how much students believed their experiences helped them achieve passing scores on licensure examinations. Results are discussed in terms of measures that can be taken to improve the overall well-being of students while they are enrolled within the preparation program.
    • Smartphone Technology And Social Interference

      Gonsalves, Joanna; Lyons, Teresa; Miller, Benjamin; Potorski, Emily (2016-12-01)
      The purpose of this experiment was to assess the impact of smartphone usage on social interactions. Previous studies have examined the relationship between smartphone usage and social relationships, but little or none with experimental designs. A particular question was whether smartphone use can detract from the establishment of commitment to a new organization and its members (specifically a university program). It was hypothesized that students who limit their smartphone use would have higher levels of belongingness and commitment to their new program and to their new college and less newcomer anxiety than students in the control group. Twenty incoming freshmen (male = 1, females =19) from a New England university completed pre-tests and post-tests. Participants attending a pre-planned college freshman retreat were randomly assigned to either the experimental group (n = 6) or the control group (n = 6), where the experimental group were asked to limit their smartphone use on the two-day retreat. The between group variable had three levels (experimental retreat group, control retreat group, and a non-retreat comparison group) and the within group variable was time of measurement (pre-retreat test and post-retreat test). Change in six dependent variables from pre-test to post-test was measured, including college anxiety, affective group commitment, and attitudes toward smartphone use along four dimensions (attachment, social connectedness, exclusion, and social assurance). Results only indicated a significant difference between the experimental and control group on the smartphone exclusion variable (U = 3.5, p = .03). This study should be replicated with a stronger manipulation of the independent variable (full limitation of smartphone use vs. regular use) and include a larger sample.
    • Learn To Meditate: Breath In Calm, Breath Out Stress

      Crone-Todd, Darlene; Miller, Benjamin; Snyder, Ryan; Ouellette, Renee (2017-05-01)
      The high stress and anxiety levels reported by college students are a concern for many students pursuing a degree. Meditation is a research-supported method of reducing stress and anxiety. While many students would like to learn how to meditate, it is difficult to do so without some form of instruction. The present study uses behavioral fading procedures to gradually diminish the use of verbal and audio prompts in a guided meditation program to eventually transfer stimulus control from the prompts to the participants themselves to meditate successfully on their own. The goals of the present study were to increase the probability of maintaining a frequent practice of meditation, and to increase the participants’ success in meditating. Success in meditating was defined by the participants’ decrease in heart rate, along with the number of fidgeting behaviors they emitted in each session. The participants (n=6) were introduced to the fading procedures at different times, using a multiple baselines across participants (MBAP) design. Physically recorded measures indicate that the program decreased participants’ overall resting heart rate as well as their heart rate within sessions, fidgeting behaviors during meditation, and their self-reported anxiety levels. Further, some of the participants persisted with their meditation practice after the study was terminated. However, overall stress levels appeared to remain the same across the program. These results imply that a MBAP design that uses fading procedures for this limited amount of time is effective in decreasing heart rate and anxiety levels, but not stress levels.
    • The Effects Of Stereotype Threat On Elders' Memory Performance

      Miller, Benjamin; Zeren, Andrea; Evett, Sophia; Raffi, Michelle (2017-05-01)
      Elders often do poorly on memory tests compared to younger adults, but this may be due in part to elders believing that memory declines with age. Previous research has found that elders who are aware of this negative stereotype freely recall and recognize fewer words than elders who are not aware of this stereotype (Chasteen et al., 2005). In a meta-analysis of previous research, young adults and elders in non-threat groups had a more liberal response criterion and produced more information about what they believe they remembered, whereas elders in the threat group had a more conservative response criterion and produced less uncertain information. This study further investigates this stereotype and how it affects elders’ memory performance after watching a video. The study found that the young adult group had more correct answers from the memory test than the elder threat group and elder non-threat group. The young adult group had a higher d’ than both old groups and the old threat group had the lowest d’. The response criteria fluctuated between each group but not as much as expected. Results have found that young adults do better on a memory test and a stereotype threat can be seen between elders during videos.
    • Exploring McGurk Effect Through Tadoma Method Of Speech Perception

      Gow, David; Miller, Benjamin; Moore, Ashley (2017-05-01)
      The process of understanding speech perception is one that also poses a handful of questions. The motor theory of speech perception was proposed to resolve some of these issues that arose. While this accounts for things like coarticulation, the evidence for both sides of the fence is mixed. The discovery of mirror neurons and the findings of fMRI studies support the motor theory, whereas work done with Japanese quails tends to contradict this. The current study explores the speech phenomenon the McGurk effect, what happens when an individual fuses the speech sounds they hear with the one they see being articulated. The problem that comes up is whether the McGurk effect is a result of articulatory cues or training. To examine this claim in a different way than in the past, eighteen subjects were taught the speech perception method of Tadoma. After two days of training, the participants were given mismatched sounds that would potentially result in a McGurk effect. The number of fused responses from subjects increased after the training; however the statistic was not significant. Therefore, it can be concluded that while more of a McGurk effect did in fact appear after the two days of training, it was not valuable enough to prove that speech perception is a product of experience and not just articulatory information.
    • Breathe Your Way Couch To 5K

      Crone-Todd, Darlene; Wong, Mike; Krugman, Martin; Brothers, Olivia (2017-05-12)
      Dealing with stress in our busy lives impacts wellbeing. In this study, a “Breathe Your Way Couch to 5K” program was used to assess whether meditation, treadmill exercise, or both result in lower levels of stress and overall higher well-being. Stress and wellbeing were measured using an Overall Health and Wellbeing Questionnaire, and perceived exertion was measured using the Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) scale. It was hypothesized that physical exercise would have a more beneficial outcome when compared with meditation and that both would result in beneficial outcomes. Participants (n=17) were asked to engage in a seven-week meditation and exercise program. Following an initial week of meditation only, every two or so weeks the participants were invited to either engage in a meditation or exercise session twice per week. Following each 20-minute session, participants filled out the RPE scale. Participants recorded their average heart rates before, immediately after the session, and two minutes after the session concluded, and also filled out the Overall Health and Wellbeing Questionnaire after they completed a meditation or exercise rotation. The results suggest that there are increased scores on overall health and wellbeing, and that the treadmill couch to 5k program had a positive impact on health and wellbeing, positive self-image, and spirituality. These results will have implications for ways for people to decrease stress and increase overall wellbeing through the use of these strategies employed in this study.
    • An Investigation of Cultural Awareness: Knowledge, Attitudes Experience and Education

      Evett, Sophia; Terrell, Danielle Marie (2015-12-01)
      For my senior honors thesis, I surveyed 84 convenience sampled participants to uncover their attitudes, knowledge, experiences, and to decipher how Salem State University has impacted diversity in their lives. This study is important because the faces of the world are ever changing and inter-racial experiences will shape professionalism. Therefore I wanted to discover how diversity has played into the lives of Salem State University students. Significant correlations were found between the four variables, and between the second part of the survey. Students were surveyed based on a seven point scale and one open response question. Participants were then asked to label a map of the Unites States or list as many states as they could if they could not identify states, then asked to name as many countries as they could according to continent. Implications of these findings are further discussed.
    • Prolonged Exposure Therapy for Veterans with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

      Krugman, Martin; Livingston, Courtney Maxine (2016-05-01)
      Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is the mental health condition that is triggered by the experience of a traumatic event and results in mental and physical health problems as well as interpersonal and social problems (Foa, Gillihan, and Bryant, 2013). There are currently many psychological treatments for individuals with PTSD. Although the literature covers a wide variety of therapies, this review will focus on prolonged exposure therapy (PE) for treatment of veterans with PTSD. This review will be broken down into five categories which are: manualized PE, PE with the presence of a traumatic brain injury, PE delivered via telehealth, PE with veterans who expressed a treatment preference for PE, and PE with active duty military personnel. All studies found prolonged exposure therapy as an effective treatment for veterans with PTSD.
    • Attempting to Create an American Sign Language Curriculum at Salem State University

      Gow, David; Kavanagh, Molly (2016-05-01)
      American Sign Language (ASL) is a non-verbal language that is utilized primarily by the deaf and hard of hearing community. This language contains grammar, morphology and syntax just like any spoken language and is estimated to be the 3rd most commonly used language in the United States. Due to their inability to vocally communicate, those who are Deaf often find themselves at a loss attempting to communicate with those who are hearing. What is even more concerning is that many people know very little about Deaf Culture and never have the opportunity to learn ASL. Many liberal art higher education institutions require students enroll in a World Language course as a part of the curriculum and offer languages such as Spanish, French, Italian and German or even Arabic, Latin or Mandarin Chinese; however, very few universities offer American Sign Language courses. In 2011, at the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA), one student took on the task of creating an ASL curriculum. He noticed that many students on campus had a desire to learn ASL and were frustrated that this class was not offered at the time. He went forward to UCLA Administration and presented them with statistics and information, urging them to begin offering ASL Classes on campus that could be taken as a Foreign Language requirement. The goal of this Thesis Project is to present to the World Language and Culture Department similar information regarding students desire to learn American Sign Language as well as illustrate the inaccessibly of classes at other institutions in the hopes that the University will consider implementing American Sign Language courses in the near future.