• N-Queens Problem

      Crowe, Kathi; Reynolds, Ashley (2018-01-01)
      Using combinatorics in this paper, we will discuss three different methods in solving the n-queens problem. We will find the maximum and minimum number of queens we can place on an n x n chessboard. Also, we will use latin squares, latin rectangles and circulant matrices as another method of placing the queens on a chessboard.
    • Factors That Affect The Stigma Of Mental Illness In College Students

      Krugman, Martin; Lyons, Teresa; Miller, Benjamin; Campbell, Colleen (2018-01-01)
      Nearly 50% of American 18-24 years olds are enrolled in college at least part time, and these years in college are often difficult, stressful times for students. In a study of over 200,000 first year college students, Iarovici (2014) found that students are reporting the lowest levels of emotional health in 25 years. Blanco et al. (2008) found that in a sample of students with mental illnesses, fewer than 25% sought treatment in the year before the survey, even though they were struggling, and this may be due to the stigma of mental illness. Stigma, according to Goffman (1963), is the application of negative characteristics to a person or group of people. This study sought to examine factors that may affect the stigma of mental illness. Variables examined included perceived public stigma, personal stigma, social desirability, locus of control, and stigma of depression specifically. The results showed a significant correlation between perceived public stigma of mental illness and perceived public stigma of depression and a significant correlation between personal stigma of mental illness and personal stigma of depression.
    • Positive And Negative Effects Of Inclusive Education On Social Development For Students With Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Literature Review

      Scott, Kristina; Coelho, Emily (2019-05-01)
      This research reviewed available literature on the positive and negative effects of educational inclusion on social development for students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Autism Spectrum Disorder is a spectrum of disorders characterized by deficits in social skills and nonverbal behaviors. With the prevalence of ASD steadily increasing, students with ASD are more frequently being placed in inclusive education classrooms among their peers without ASD. Research studies conveyed that positive inclusion harbors social inclusion, trained educators and cooperation from peers who are non-disabled. Other studies conveyed that inclusion can be detrimental to a student with ASD’s social development and success. Results of this literature review suggests that there are several supports required within an inclusive education environment in order for social developmental progress to be made for students with ASD.
    • Comparing Individual Differences In Literacy Development In Pre-Kindergarteners And Kindergarteners: A Literature Review And A Proposal For Future Research

      Miller, Patrice; Harris, Morgan (2019-05-01)
      The thesis, Comparing Individual Differences in Literacy Development in Pre-Kindergarteners and Kindergarteners, is a literature review that examines some of the research literature, focusing on the different aspect’s researchers examined related to literacy development. The articles focused heavily on children’s self-concept and the home literacy environment that the parents provide for the child. This thesis describes in depth five articles with a connection to either the home literacy environment, or children’s self-concept. The self-concept articles specifically examined how children viewed their own competency in completing school-related tasks. The articles reviewed were chosen because of their connection to the literacy environment and children’s success. From the analysis of these articles a study is proposed in which the home literacy environment would be evaluated, and children would be asked questions related to their self-competence. These two measures would then be related to children’s reading test scores to examine the relative contribution of each of the two predictors to literacy. In addition to the detailed discussion of previous work, this thesis describes in depth the measures that would be used in this study, the HOME, the Harter Self-Competence scale and school measures such as the BAS and PALs.
    • Identification Of Psychosocial Factors In The Development Of Serial Killers In The United States

      Gonsalves, Joanna; Brennan, Tiffany (2019-05-01)
      The purpose of this study is to attempt to identify risk factors associated with serial killing. This line of investigation can aid criminal justice and mental health professionals in preventing murders in the future. Twenty-five case studies of serial killers convicted in the United States between 1967 and 2016 were examined using newspapers, books, biographies, and social science peer reviewed articles. The analyses focused on demographic, psychological, and sociological factors, such as mental illness and criminality, that may have predisposed the sample to become serial killers. The results of the study are discussed in terms of prevention, including early detection of risk factors, treatment, and improving social systems currently in place.
    • Examining Sanity Testing: Past, Present, And Future

      Gonsalves, Joanna; Marchionda, Claudia (2019-05-01)
      This thesis explores the use and validity of sanity testing in the United States. The central question is how the legal determination of criminally insanity impacts the outcomes for accused individuals. The primary sources used in this thesis include federal laws and regulations, forensic psychology research, and case studies. The history of the insanity plea and the role of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders within the courtroom are explored. Also considered are current sanity testing practices, with emphasis on the consequences of type I and type II errors. My research suggests that these definitions are not consistent among the different organizations involved. The sanity plea is reevaluated when the public becomes involved and the nature of society changes. Implications for such inconsistencies are discussed.
    • Are Future Teachers Ready To Work With Students With Anxiety Disorders?

      Gonsalves, Joanna; Vallario, Katrina (2019-05-01)
      Childhood anxiety has garnered attention over the past couple of decades due to high prevalence rates and early onset (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2013). This study investigated future educators’ attitudes and knowledge regarding childhood anxiety disorders. An original survey was created and administered to education students at a state school in Massachusetts to assess their knowledge about anxiety, gauge their exposure to childhood anxiety, and measure attitudinal ratings about teachers’ role in addressing childhood anxiety. Statistical analyses were conducted to see whether there were any curricular or experiential predictors of participants’ attitudes or knowledge. No statistically significant correlations were found. However, almost all of the participants acknowledged that childhood anxiety was something that will be seen in their classrooms, and nearly half of participants responded with low confidence levels in regard to being adequately prepared to service children with anxiety.
    • Improving Tier-1 Mental Health Programs In Schools

      Aparicio, Carlos; LeClerc, Hannah K. (2019-05-01)
      Tier-1 mental health education programs are designed to educate young people about general mental health issues in school settings and everyday life situations. In practice, however, they have not been efficient at delivering a generalized mental health education to individual’s ages 5-18 years old, because these programs do not consider socioeconomic, sociocultural, and gender differences; and these factors are important to effectively educate individuals. The thesis of the present study is that if these factors are included in the design and implementation of tier-1 programs, they will succeed in educating individuals about mental health issues. Accordingly, the present study reviewed research assessing socioeconomic, sociocultural and gender factors in determining the successful implementation of tier-1 mental educational programs. The main findings and their implications to the development and implementation of tier-1 programs are discussed in this paper.
    • Is Polydipsia a Predictor of Cognitive Impulsivity?

      Aparicio, Carlos; Lilja, Shannon (2020-05-01)
      Two nonhuman animal models of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), the Spontaneously Hypertensive rat (SHR) and Lewis (LEW) rats, were used to explore the possibility that schedule-induced polydipsia is a predictor of cognitive impulsivity. A concurrent-chains procedure consisting of 60 choice cycles was used. Each cycle began with one response on the back lever causing two front levers to extend into the experimental chamber. Choice was measured in the initial link with the levers using Random Interval schedules arranging entries to two terminal links. In one terminal link, the left lever produced one food pellet immediately (SSF). In the other terminal link, the right lever produced 4 food pellets (LLF) after a delay of 0.1, 5, 10, 20, 40 or 80 seconds. A bottle of water could be available (B), or could not be (A) available, to the rats in the choice situation according to an ABABA design. The results showed that the rats discounted the value of the LLF as a function of the delay to deliver it. Both strains of rats drank water during the one-minute blackout following 10 choice cycles during the session. But the SHRs drank more water than the LEWs, especially during the delays to the LLF. A negative correlation between polydipsia and discounting rate suggests that: (1) polydipsia is not a predictor of impulsive choice, and (2) polydipsia is not related to motor impulsivity.
    • Why Incorporating Translanguaging Practices Into English As A Second Language Programs Will Help Boost English Proficiency And Build Confident English Learners

      Gonzalez, Melanie; Neault, Jillian (2020-05-01)
      English as a second language programs often implement other ways of teaching that do not allow for students to use their native language, requiring the use of English only using various instructional strategies to teach language and content. Translanguaging is a practice allows for students to be able to learn English as well as keeping their identity and culture through using their native language (L1) alongside English. This approach helps students to still learn English and be able to communicate with both their teachers and families at home about their schoolwork. Therefore, this thesis explores educational research done on translanguaging and the benefits that can come from using this way of teaching. To complete this thesis, I performed a literature review in the form of a pedagogical article to show the benefits of translanguaging.
    • Exploring An American Identity Crisis In Emerging Adulthood

      Gonsalves, Joanna; Siefken, Rebecca (2020-05-01)
      This study investigates the possibility of an American Identity crisis in emerging adults, where young, college-aged people are feeling conflicted and possibly rejecting a common American identity. The period of emerging adulthood in many first-world countries is a time between adolescence and adulthood where young adults are able to explore different roles, identities, and ideas independently from their parents, guardians, and hometown (Arnett, 2000). The goal of this research is to listen to young Americans regarding their conceptions of a common American identity and to explore the degree to which they accept or reject this identity for themselves. This research further explores the theme of emerging adults finding their voices and exploring new viewpoints to vocally question ideas that conflict with personal values, and possibly changing the future of America through active involvement as citizens. An original, online survey was created for students at Salem State University that includes open-response and Likert-style questions regarding their own identity and attitudes regarding a perceived common American identity. Qualitative and quantitative analysis are used to examine the possibility of a generational American identity crisis among emerging adults. The intersections between American identity and other participant identities, such as race, sexual orientation, and gender, are also analyzed and discussed.
    • Analyzing The Relationships Between Alcohol Consumption, Cocaine Use, Relationship Satisfaction And Dependency

      Crone-Todd, Darlene; Miller, Benjamin; Gonsalves, Joanna; McBride, Valerie (2020-05-01)
      Few studies have examined the direct relationship between alcohol consumption and cocaine use while analyzing the impact of social factors on these interactions. This study examined alcohol consumption, cocaine use, and participants’ relationship satisfaction while also investigating the relationships each variable had with alcohol dependency and drug dependency. An online survey was administered through surveymonkey.com to 100 participants through a link that was posted on several Facebook pages and was sent to a university e-mail list. Of these 100 participants, 19 were excluded due to missing information. Significant relationships were found between alcohol variables, social factors, and dependency. No significant relationships between cocaine use and alcohol were found, however alcohol’s involvement in cocaine users reported last use was analyzed as well as how often they used and whom they were with. Some limitations to this study included a small sample and relying on self-reported data.
    • Racial Injustices: The Menstrual Health Experiences of African American and Latina Women

      Moore, Sara B.; Martinez, L. Virginia (2020-05-01)
      The goal of this research is to examine racial disparities among college-age African American and Latina women with a focus on menstrual health issues and their experiences with health care. This research includes a literature review that explores the existence of institutionalized racism and sexism in medicine, giving attention to reproductive justice and ultimately menstrual justice for women of color. It also entails four semi-structured, in-depth interviews with African American and Latina women, through which I identified four common themes: 1) the normalization of pain, symptoms, and experiences, 2) feelings of not being taken seriously by medical providers, 3) the disruption of daily activities and self-image, and 4) feelings of frustration that treatments are not working. Previous research supports the findings that women of color are disproportionately disadvantaged compared to their White counterparts in terms of birth outcomes and infant mortality, quality of medical care, and their relationship with medical professionals. Although the area of menstrual justice is particularly understudied, this research sheds light on the experiences of women of color who have sought medical care for menstrual health conditions in the hopes that their health care experiences will not go unnoticed or be dismissed. Medical professionals can draw on this study to address the problem of racial disparities in medical treatment, menstrual health, and health care in general to provide a meaningful and effective path for women of color.
    • A Literature Review Of Alternative Approaches To Escape Extinction In Feeding Protocols

      Gonsalves, Joanna; Setzer, Olivia (2021)
      This literature review investigated different treatment packages for feeding protocols in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A literature review was conducted on case studies with participants under the age of eighteen with at least one problem behavior related to feeding. The case studies included were peer-reviewed and published in a journal article in the past twelve years. The review considered a set of variables for each study that included: the number of children who were treated, the effectiveness of the treatment, consistency of results between participants, consistency of results across studies, and follow up treatment effectiveness. Based on the literature reviewed, the results indicated there was no single treatment package that consistently demonstrates a decrease in inappropriate mealtime behavior and an increase in acceptable mealtime behavior. High probability sequences, noncontingent reinforcement, behavioral skills training, least-to-most prompting, and lag schedules of reinforcement were at least moderately effective at decreasing inappropriate mealtime behavior and increasing appropriate mealtime behavior without using escape extinction.
    • What is Missing Here? The Absence of a Culturally Responsive Pedagogy in Salem State University’s Early Childhood Teacher Preparation Program

      Schumaker-Murphy, Megan; Noonan, Anne; Morin, Julia (2021-05-01)
      The K-12 student population in the United States is becoming increasingly more diverse in terms of the cultural, linguistic, ethnic, religious, and economic backgrounds of its students, with the racial identity of the students being of particular interest to researchers now that students of color make up around 50% of the school children population (Pennington, 2003). Numerous studies in this area have indicated that in order to meet the learning needs of a diverse student body and make their educational experience more equitable, a teacher must take on a culturally responsive teaching approach. This teaching approach to education has proven to be effective with students from various backgrounds as it builds on both the strengths and learning capacity of the individual student; and creates an expectation for teachers to take responsibility for their students` success, communicate high behavioral and academic expectations address their implicit biases, and work on relationship building and trust within their classroom (Souto-Manning, 2018). However, White people account for almost 90% of both teachers and teacher students in America (Ladson-Billings, 1999), and countless studies have reported that these teachers are ill- prepared to become a culturally responsive teacher, let along be able to address their implicit biases (Jett, 2012). Since the Massachusetts school system is currently seeing an increase in the diversity of its student population, as well as serious issues with segregation making it more likely for teachers to have a class where most of its` children identify as minority students (Rocheleau, 2017), an early childhood teacher preparation college in the area was observed, specifically Salem State University. The courses within the teacher preparations were examined, specifically for the purpose of finding how embedded a culturally responsive pedagogy was in the required courses for graduation. The study then gives recommendations about how to weave culturally responsive teaching and/or principles of culturally responsive teaching throughout the courses within the program, so pre-service teachers will be professionally trained to be culturally responsive educators in their future schools.
    • Social Isolation And Loneliness In The COVID-19 Pandemic

      Krugman, Martin; Lee, Emma (2022-05-01)
      The COVID-19 pandemic is a problem that the world has been facing for just about two and a half years. During this time, governments around the world implemented a variety of mandates – most prevalently lockdowns, quarantines, and other social isolation guidelines – in an attempt to curtail the spread of COVID-19. It makes intuitive sense to expect social isolation to have impacted loneliness levels in the general adult population during the first year of the pandemic, when social isolation related guidelines were widespread. Thus, the present study sought to conduct a search and review of the psychological literature related to the impact of social isolation and other related variables on loneliness in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Psychological databases and studies’ reference sections were searched until a pool of 11 studies was formed. Aside from loneliness, variables that were examined as predictors of loneliness in at least five of the 11 studies were chosen for discussion in the present literature review. Ultimately, it was found that loneliness was high and widespread during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic, and that a number of sociodemographic variables were risk factors for loneliness during this time. However, there were some contradictory findings in the studies regarding whether or not loneliness increased in the general population during this time. Thus, further longitudinal research investigating this phenomenon is warranted.
    • How Our Relationships With Ourselves Impact Our Relationships With Others

      Mark, Christopher; Kollman-Veit, Chloe (2022-05-01)
      Out of the many theories as to why and how humans choose their long-term mates, two different models are explored in the present study. Evolutionary models examine the mating strategies used by the two sexes, focusing on the resources each sex can provide to their mate and any subsequent offspring. Alternatively, cognitive models explore the reasons behind a human’s thought processes and potential emotions that contribute to mate choice. Evolutionary models cannot explain all human mating, especially those who cannot reproduce heterosexually. Specifically, the LGBTQ+ community have been historically overlooked regarding these theories. The present study investigated whether human mate preference is most accurately described using a cognitive versus an evolutionary model. It was hypothesized that the mating preference for those who identify as being part of the LGBTQ+ community will be best explained by a cognitive model, while the mating preference of heterosexual participants will be best explained by an evolutionary model. Participants (N=97) were asked to rate certain traits, first for themselves and then for a potential future partner. Results showed that a cognitive model could explain mate preference for both LGBTQ+ and heterosexual individuals [linear regression: df = 1, F = 983.528, p < .0001, R2 = .912] Someone who rated a characteristic in themselves highly would rate that characteristic important in a partner highly as well. Those who recreate this study should try a random sampling method, and further, explore how people’s expression of their sexuality impacts their long-term mate preference.
    • Perspectivas De Acceso Y Tratamiento Para La Salud Mental En La Comunidad Latinx De Los E.E.U.U.

      Dávila Gonçalves, Michele; Hames, Ash (2022-05-01)
      Addressing the mental health crisis in the United States for members of Latinx communities is a matter of sociocultural limitations. Through a qualitative essay written in Spanish, this study investigates the attitudes of Latinx people in the U.S. regarding mental health care and their identity through qualitative face-to-face interviews or via Zoom. I had a group of eight subjects who were between 20 and 35 years old, identified as Latinx while living in the U.S., and were students or employees of a Massachusetts public university. First, the subjects completed a written survey where behavior was evaluated on the search for treatment, knowledge of treatment and its value, stigma, discomfort with the emotions generated, access and cultural barriers. After subjects completed the survey, I used a script of questions to facilitate our discussion of reactions to the survey, personal and relevant anecdotes, and one's own experience when seeking treatment for mental health (example: "Have you gone to therapy?"). I performed a thematic analysis of the information recorded during interviews to look for the significance in regard to the area of psychology. In the second stage of analysis, I collected evidence from the interviews and written sources, and organized them into four themes with three sub-themes for each category. I investigate the four themes of access to resources, discrimination and intersectionality, relationships with family and society, and psychological observations, specifically regarding how public health and psychology workers can improve the effectiveness of mental health care for the Latinx community.
    • An Investigation Into Which Techniques Of Play Therapy Are Most Effective Across A Spectrum Of Behaviors In Children

      Gonsalves, Joanna; Boghosian, Jamie (2022-05-01)
      Play Therapy, a type of therapy in which play is used to help a client share their emotions and work through their issues, is a globally used practice (Cassado-Frankel, 2016). It is used to help many children combat their trauma, anxiety, depression, and several other disorders and conditions. This thesis reports on a meta-analysis of 11 previous research studies in the psychological literature research conducted on this subject and an analysis of data collected via an original survey completed by seventeen child therapists in the New England area who use play therapy on a regular basis with their clients. Consistent with previous studies in the literature, survey respondents reported that play therapy is very effective in helping children clients with their struggles. The survey found that the participants believed a play therapy session should be 30-60 minutes on average in order for it to be effective. The survey also found several patterns in which types of play therapy are most commonly practiced for different types of conditions. For example, the most preferred types of play therapy to practice were Child- Centered Play Therapy and Non-Directive Play Therapy. Another pattern found was that play therapy was most popularly practiced with clients who have anxiety disorders and least used with clients who have oppositional defiant disorder.
    • The First School Shooter: Examining Multiple Causation In A Case Of Mass Murder

      Gow, David; Lowe, Madison (2022-05-01)
      Violence in schools and in public settings is an unfortunately growing problem in modern society, and understanding why and how these crimes happen is an integral part to preventing future occurrences. This thesis is a case study of Charles Whitman, the person recognized as perpetrating the first mass shooting on a college campus. This case study examines multiple causation theory using Charles Whitman’s case as an examine and guide for discussion. Areas of discussion include childhood abuse, drug use, self esteem, brain chemistry, social learning, locus of control, limbic system dysfunction, and cancer. It is argued through the case study that multiple causation theory provides the strongest, most encompassing explanation for why a person may end up committing a violent crime. Connections between sections, relation to the Whitman case, and discussion about how multiple causation theory is applicable to preventing similar cases are discussed.