Now showing items 1-20 of 45

    • Analysis of Quasi-Palindrome Template-Switch Mutations after treatment with FDA approved drugs in E. coli

      Shteynberg, Rebecca; Laranjo, Laura (2021-05-01)
      Quasi-Palindromes (QP) are imperfect inverted repeats of DNA sequences with the ability to form secondary structures that block the DNA replication fork during DNA synthesis. These structures can cause mutations that have been associated with a variety of genetic diseases. If the DNA replication fork is blocked by QP structures, the main replicative protein, DNA polymerase, can use an alternative method to continue DNA replication, called “template-switching”, which results in a perfect palindrome, synthesized from a quasi-palindromic sequence. Although this is an efficient method, it is known to be mutagenic. It has been shown that template-switch mutations have been promoted after treatment of various well-known drugs such as 5-Azycatidine, an FDA-approved chemotherapy treatment, Azidothymidine (AZT), an antiviral chain terminator, and drugs that inhibit the action of topoisomerase II. The goal of this research project is to establish cellular consequences of additional FDA-approved drugs in QP mutations using E. coli as the model organism. We aim to understand the repercussions of additional drugs in template-switching QP mutations to increase our knowledge of the potential side effects for current FDA-approved drugs. Data from this research can be used to consider susceptibility of QP mutations when approving new drugs.
    • Effects of Road Construction to Marginalized Community and Biodiversity

      Pokharel, Rejina; Delissio, Lisa (2021-05-01)
      The construction of roads is a recognized cause of habitat fragmentation, a major factor in biodiversity loss. At the same time, road construction may either harm or benefit low-income, native, or otherwise marginalized populations. I hypothesize that 1) road construction that is harmful to marginalized people is also harmful to biodiversity. 2) part of the harm to marginalized people from road construction arises from the harm to biodiversity.
    • Investigating FDA-Approved Anti-Tumor Drugs for Effects on Template-Switch Mutagenesis (TSM) and Mechanism of SOS response in E. coli

      Addorisio, Sydney R.; Laranjo, Laura; Laranjo, Laura (2021-05-01)
      Quasipalindromes (QPs) are imperfect inverted repeats of DNA that are known to form secondary structures (such as hairpins and cruciforms). QPs sites have also been associated with a specific class of mutation known as template-switch mutations (TSM). It is known that TSM can be caused by the addition of drugs such as 5-azaC, AZT, and ciprofloxacin. This study aims to analyze the effects of three FDA approved antitumor drugs, CPT-11, Temozolomide, and Doxorubicin hydrochloride for their ability to promote or prevent template-switch mutagenesis and, if there is an increase in mutation rates, we aim to clarify by what mechanism that effect is induced. To do this, we use a previously published TSM reporter in the lacZ gene that provides both a qualitative and quantitative measure of TSM frequencies. Using this established system, we study mutation frequencies and rates in both the leading and lagging strand of DNA to provide possible pathways that lead to TSM. Our data proposes mechanisms of mutations that are correlated to each drug mode of action.
    • Bioactivity and medicinal properties of verbascum thapsus

      Beirholm, Jacob; MacTaylor, Christine (2021-05-01)
      In this experiment, fungal endophytes, from Verbascum Thapsus, more commonly known as common mullein, were separated to examine for possible medicinal properties. There were thirty chemical compounds that showed possible medicinal properties, ranging from anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory to analgesics and more. These endophytes, from the leaf, were also tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa to determine possible antibacterial properties. For both of the endophytes found in the leaf, there was inhibition observed in all the bacteria besides Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
    • Bioactivity and Possible Medicinal Properties of Limonium (Sea Lavender)

      Bartlett, Holly; MacTaylor, Christine (2021-05-01)
      Sea Lavender plant samples were collected and examined in many different ways to identify any medicinal properties it may have. The plant samples were plated in order to grow endophytes, bacteria or fungus that live within a plant, and later were able to extract the metabolites. The extracts were processed in the Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (LCMS) machine to find any identifiable compounds within the extracts. Twenty identifiable compounds were found and connected to a medicinal use.
    • Teaching Entomology Through Childrens Stories

      Kemp, Lindsey; Fletcher, Lynn (2021-05-01)
      There are very few children's books that teach them about insects. This project was designed to help children learn and understand entomology through stories. The requirements of this project was to research about an insect order and a few different families. When collecting information, primary and secondary sources were used, and a bibliography was developed to help keep a record of the sources. Information about an insect's life history, behaviors, and morphological adaptations were researched for creating this story.
    • COVID-19 and its effects on student's mental health

      Burnett, Kennady; Lesnikoski, Steven; Monico, Janine; Tocci, Joseph; Hein, Andrea (2021-05-01)
      The purpose of this study is to address the effects of COVID-19 and stress on undergraduate students studying social work at Salem State University. This is a primarily quantitative, non-experimental cross sectional research study. We will be collecting data using the perceived stress scale. In relation to feeling stress, the study will be looking at demographic information including age, gender, race, and grade level. The data will be tested using ANOVA with the purpose of finding the mean between each different population group. Our hypothesis for this study is that online learning, due to the COVID- 19 pandemic, negatively affects students' mindset studying social work at Salem State University. The data synthesized to form this hypothesis includes the independent variable COVID-19 virus.
    • Mental Health Stigmas Among Salem State Students

      Schultz, Astrid; Levine, Hannah; Theodorakakakos, Evangelia; Romero-Velasquez, Keyla; Benoit, Brieanna; Hein, Andrea (2021-05-01)
      Within this research proposal we will be discussing mental illness and the stigmas that surround it. The effect of not speaking on the matter has resulted in backlash and negative connotations for receiving help. Many individuals have struggled without assistance. This research proposal will delve into the issue of mental illness and the stigmas that surround it. In many cultures, mental illness has been looked upon as something to be ashamed of, resulting in a neglected system for treatment. People suffering with mental health issues are reluctant to seek help, and when they do seek help, adequate treatment is not available.
    • Investigating Systematic Barriers to Higher Education

      Slipkowsky, John; Berry, Fard; Sneed, Rosimara; Hein, Andrea (2021-05-01)
      Our research study focuses on uncovering the barriers that BSW students at Salem State University may encounter towards achieving their higher education goals, particularly students who belong to historically marginalized groups. Existing issues of accessibility and sustainability in higher education will be thoroughly investigated, as well as the conditions whereby inequalities may be perpetuated. In doing so, the researchers aim to identify the root causes of disparities to cultivate workable solutions which will lead to a more equitable future for all students and significantly increase positive outcomes pursuant to social justice within the realm of higher education.
    • Accessibility of Social Service Agencies for Clients with Limited English Proficiency

      Musema, Suzanne; Mirick, Rebecca (2021-05-01)
      This study examined the accessibility of social service agencies in the city of Lynn, Massachusetts for clients with limited English proficiency (LEP). Social service agencies (N=27) participated in phone interviews and/or an online survey, exploring services offered by the agencies, the availability of translation services, and if so, in what languages and procedures for providing translation services. Results showed that more than half of the agencies provided oral translation services to clients who prefer to engage in a language other than English by relying on bilingual staff members, and family and friends of the client to act as the interpreters. Many agencies only offered services in Spanish and English. The study’s findings offered some important insight into the availability of services to the sizable portion of the city’s residents who have LEP status, revealing the disparities that exist in access to language assistance.
    • Stressors of first-generation versus non-first-generation college students

      Fox, Miranda; Alesy, Petrina; DiChiara, Katelyn; Flores, Karina; Hein, Andrea (2021-05-01)
      The purpose of this study is to research the stress levels between first-generation college students versus non-first-generation college students.
    • Social Media's Impact on Self-Esteem: Among Currently Enrolled Young College Students (18-26)

      Edgardo, Pena; Guerrier, Christy; Montoya, Ingrid; Paredez, Jacqueline; Thompson, Mikayla; Hein, Andrea (2021-05-01)
      The purpose of this study is to research how social media continues to greatly impact the development of a healthy self-image, influencing a high prevalence of low self-esteem among currently enrolled college students (ages 18-26), who are affiliated/connected with social media platforms. The research will also examine/measure significant factors, influencing reported levels of SE. Furthermore, demographics (race, gender identification, college year level, and social media affiliation) questionnaire and survey scale instrument (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale) data collection will examine differential views of self-esteem. This study aims to identify the impact of social media on SE, among young current college students (18-26), regardless of demographic factors (race, gender identification, college year level, and social media affiliation).
    • Coleoptera City

      Jones, Nicole D.; Fletcher, Lynn (2021-05-01)
      This project was composed to create a fun way for children to find interest in entomology by presenting the information in the form of a children's book.
    • Using the Ketogenic Diet to Reduce the Incidence of Pediatric Seizures: Helping Children and Families to Find a Better Quality of Life

      Wohler, Alison; Ebersole, Nancy (2021-05-01)
      The use of diet modifications to control seizures is showing promise as an alternative to medications in pediatric patients.
    • The Significance of the Microbiome: It's Role in Infant Development and Long-Term Health

      Haro, Lariza; Ebersole, Nancy (2021-05-01)
      Humans enjoy a beneficial symbiotic relationship with bacteria. Although commonly thought to be the cause of illness, bacteria aid in food digestion along with creating resistance to disease. The microbiome refers to the aggregate of bacteria that reside in our intestinal track. There has been an effort over the past decade to map the human microbiome in order to identify this relationship. Given this crucial role of microbiota in human health, it is important to know how the microbiome is formed in infancy as it may impact one’s future ability to obtain wellness. A review of the literature was done to examine what is known of the microbiome at the earliest stage of life and the relationship to issues later in life. The articles were identified using the databases CINAHL, PubMed, and MEDLINE. Five themes were identified across the articles studied. The microbiome: (a) of preterm infants differs from full-term infants; (b) at birth is found in both the lungs and intestines; (c) development is affected by an infant’s intake of formula vs. breastmilk; (d) present and its amount present during infancy may influence the risk of developing behavioral issues; (e) development is altered when antibiotics are administered to newborns/infants. The choices of how a child will be fed is decided during pregnancy and consideration of the microbiome and its effect on future health has serious implications. Knowledge of the microbiome’s role in healthy growth and development should be considered when working with expectant mothers, parents and families of newborns.
    • Minimizing The Risk Of Orthopedic Surgical Site Infections In The Pediatric Population: Using Evidence To Inform Practice

      Gridley, Alaina; Ebersole, Nancy (2021-05-01)
      Surgical site infections are some of the most common hospital-acquired infections and are associated with higher rates of morbidity and mortality for patients. Surgical site infections can also increase length of hospital stay for patients and elevate healthcare costs. There is extensive literature exploring risk factors associated with acquiring surgical site infections in adults undergoing orthopedic surgery, however, literature exploring this topic in the pediatric population is limited. Additionally, many interventions and assumed risks within the pediatric population are extrapolated from data collected from adults. A systematic review of the literature was done using the CINAHL database to identify risk factors associated with acquiring surgical site infections in the pediatric orthopedic patient population and interventions to help mitigate these risks. The result of these studies showed that both weight and nutritional status played a role in predicting the incidences of acquiring a surgical site infection. Additionally, prophylactic antibiotic selection and dosing needs to be specific to both the possible pathogen and the patient. A bundle approach to interventions can help to reduce the rate of surgical site infections, however, strict compliance amongst staff can be difficult to ensure. It is imperative as healthcare professionals that we work to identify associated risk factors for developing surgical site infections within the pediatric population undergoing orthopedic surgery. The identification of these risk factors can guide evidence-based practice to establish interventions that can mitigate these risks and promote health and safety for the pediatric population.
    • Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injuries: Challenges in Providing Effective Patient Care and Importance of Proper Family Support

      Conners, Kaitlyn; Ebersole, Nancy (2021-05-01)
      The human brain is one of the most important, yet least understood, organs in the human body. This functional unit innervates every aspect of human life and is ever changing from conception until full maturity around age 25. Considering this, it makes sense that pediatric traumatic brain injuries are so misunderstood. Attempting to diagnose and monitor a traumatic injury to a complex organ that is still growing and developing is challenging for clinicians. Proper interaction with these children and their families is vital to physical health and psychosocial development. Identifying current knowledge and disseminating it is crucial for planning interventions and promoting healthy outcomes. A review of the literature was done using the CINAHL database, and articles collected identify themes that are important and unique to caring for these patients. The themes are (a) impact of age at time of injury on post injury behavior; (b) importance of proper identification of TBI related behaviors and appropriate interventions; (c) relationship between severity of injury and post injury behaviors; (d) patient challenges with internalizing and externalizing problems; and (e) role of home environment on post injury behaviors and recovery process. When caring for this patient population, it is important for health care providers to not use a "one size fits all" approach, as each patient will have a different presentation and different needs based on the factors listed above. The themes identified here provide a point of reference for clinicians when planning care for children who have experienced a traumatic brain injury.
    • Easing the Emotional Burden of Families When a Child Has Cancer: The Application of Evidence to Nursing Practice

      Aliberti, Mary; Ebersole, Nancy (2021-05-01)
      The nurse’s role in caring for a child with cancer has its challenges, but when done correctly can positively affect the well-being of a patient and their family. Both the patient and family go through major psychosocial shifts from the time that the child receives the diagnosis of cancer. This time of considerable transition can leave families feeling lost during an already uncertain period. Keeping patients and family members involved throughout the course of treatment is essential for the success of effective care. The database CINAHL Plus was used to do a systematic review of the literature to identify common issues in pediatric oncology nursing practice and the toll that this can take on patients and their family’s mental well-being. Common themes identified in the literature are family members are in different developmental stages and each requires a unique approach; caregiver knowledge or lack thereof is a major factor in family well-being; and a child’s ability to communicate and be heard impacts how the need for care is perceived and provided. This is an important topic because nurses must consider the psychosocial needs of the family unit as well the physical needs when it comes to providing optimal care. Dealing with a diagnosis as harmful as cancer is a considerable amount of stress to be put on a young child and the family. Knowledge of what is currently known will lead to more effective communication with patients and family members, resulting in greater health outcomes.
    • Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infection Reduction: Using Evidence to Inform Practice

      Cohen, Christopher; Ebersole, Nancy (2021-05-01)
      Central line-associated bloodstream infections or CLABSIs cause major life-threatening illnesses that have a high prevalence rate within our healthcare industry today. CLABSIs not only cause potentially fatal consequences for patients, but also cost hospitals a substantial amount of money to treat these infections. CLABSIs can result from not only the insertion of the central line from a healthcare provider, but also in the central line care by nursing staff. Therefore, hospitals have implemented standardized “bundles” for central lines to try to reduce the overall amount of CLABSIs. However, many hospitals are not seeing a significant decrease in the number of infections from the time that they adopted these practices. A systematic review of literature was conducted using the CINAHL Plus database to investigate the efforts of trying to reduce the overall occurrence of CLABSIs and the success rates of these practices. Major themes include the implementation of bundles for central lines are not being consistently applied by those working at the bedside. Inconsistency with the implementation of bundles of care for central lines can be attributed to incomplete knowledge of what needs to be done; while the presence of written policies do not ensure policy compliance. Nurses are at the frontline to ensure patient safety and reducing patient risk for acquiring CLABSIs. It is important that nurses identify the barriers to compliance and collaborate to create effective strategies to promote patient safety and lower the overall occurrence of these life-threatening infections.
    • The Effects Stress and Anxiety Have on Cognition Performance

      Blackmore, Danielle; Doron-LaMarca, Susan (2021-05-01)
      The purpose of this study was looking into the effects of stress and anxiety on undergraduate students’ cognition performance. Specifically, my main study hypothesis is that stress and anxiety has a negative effect on students’ cognition performance, similar to previous research conducted with undergraduates in Midwestern schools that found students who reported stress affecting their academic performance had lower GPA (Frazier et al., 2018). Fifty-two students who were enrolled at colleges and universities participated in my study. Participants ranged from 18-39 years of age, and were primarily enrolled in courses full-time. The study was conducted through an online survey and consisted of questions on stress and anxiety, attention span, memory, and how overwhelmed participants reported feeling in the past month.