• A Late Glacial to Holocene Sediment Record of Ice-Rafted Detritus from Orphan Knoll, Northwest Atlantic Ocean

      Anastopoulos, Kristen M.; Cullen, James L.; Cullen, James (2021-05-01)
      High-resolution sediment records from North Atlantic deep-sea sediments have been used to document millennial-scale abrupt climate oscillations during the last glacial cycle. A five-meter core (DY081-GVY002) was recovered from the Orphan Knoll, Northwest Atlantic Ocean during the RRS Discovery Cruise ICY LAB in 2017. Forty-closely spaced samples from the top 65cm (1-2 cm spacing) have been used to generate two proxies that record changes in the input of ice-rafted detritus (IRD): IRD/g, lithic grains >150µm per gram of sediment, %IRD ((number of lithic grains >150µm) / (number of lithic grains >150µm + number of planktic foraminifers >150µm)) x 100). Our record, which significantly improves the resolution previously presented by Gugliemli et al. (2020), reveals a series of abrupt increases in IRD input ranging from 4,000-7,200 lithic grains/g within a background of 3,000 or less lithic grains/g, at 5cm, 10cm, 25cm, 38cm and 44cm. The %IRD record reveals high values over the interval of 34cm-55cm that correspond to high IRD/g input which can be correlated to an interval of high Ca/Sr ratios, a proxy that has been previously used to indicate the input of detrital carbonates composed of dolomite and/or inorganic calcite (Hodell et al. 2008). We have preliminarily correlated this interval to Heinrich event 1 (H1), one of a series of abrupt increases in IRD input that occurred throughout the North Atlantic during the last glacial (MIS 4-2); (Heinrich 1988). Another high interval in the Ca/Sr ratio occurs at 12-15cm this corresponds to a peak in %IRD, we have preliminarily correlated this interval as Heinrich event 0 (H0). Our data suggests a closer relationship between %IRD and Ca/Sr proxies, whereas IRD/g is more easily influenced by other factors. The other peaks in IRD/g that also record low %IRD occur when Ca/Sr ratios are at lower background levels, suggesting the decoupling of these proxies for reasons we have not been able to explain yet.
    • A Literature Review of Effects of Concussions on the Brain and Mental Health of Athletes

      Devine, Tyler; Scottgale, Thomas (2021-05-01)
      This literature review investigates the effects concussions have on the brain and mental health of athletes. The mechanism of concussions is described as how it affects the brain and some possible cellular effects. Then several studies are highlighted in the major contact sports of football and soccer as well as a comparison of the rate of concussions in men’s versus women’s sports. It is also pointed out that concussions occur much more often in competition than in practice sessions. The analysis shows there’s a strong correlation between concussions and mental issues such as anxiety, depression, behavioral and emotional changes. Functional Neurocognitive Imaging is a new technique used in detecting concussion injuries and can be used to develop a treatment plan for injured individuals. It is also pointed out that concussions can lead to serious disorders like Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE), Second Impact Syndrome (SIS), and Parkinson’s Disease, but with the correct amount of treatment and recovery time, athletes can go back to living their life normally without the fear of future mental backlash from their initial concussion.
    • Accessibility of Social Service Agencies for Clients with Limited English Proficiency

      Musema, Suzanne; Mirick, Rebecca (2021-05-01)
      This study examined the accessibility of social service agencies in the city of Lynn, Massachusetts for clients with limited English proficiency (LEP). Social service agencies (N=27) participated in phone interviews and/or an online survey, exploring services offered by the agencies, the availability of translation services, and if so, in what languages and procedures for providing translation services. Results showed that more than half of the agencies provided oral translation services to clients who prefer to engage in a language other than English by relying on bilingual staff members, and family and friends of the client to act as the interpreters. Many agencies only offered services in Spanish and English. The study’s findings offered some important insight into the availability of services to the sizable portion of the city’s residents who have LEP status, revealing the disparities that exist in access to language assistance.
    • An Investigation into the Endophytic Medicinal and Biological Properties of Solidago sempervirens

      Moge, Serena; MacTaylor, Christine (2021-05-01)
      The study of medicinal plants is a rapidly growing area of research. Historically, medicinal plants have been used in traditional medicine from which many modern medicines are inspired. Plant essential oils are promising natural products as they exhibit biological, medicinal, and nutritional properties. Endophytes are microbes that are found in plants and have symbiotic relationships with the plants they reside in. Endophytes are relatively less-studied microorganisms that present various benefits due to their bioactive metabolites. The purpose of this research is to grow and isolate endophytes from locally-grown goldenrod and analyze the medicinal properties of this plant based on the compounds found in it.
    • Analysis of Quasi-Palindrome Template-Switch Mutations after treatment with FDA approved drugs in E. coli

      Shteynberg, Rebecca; Laranjo, Laura (2021-05-01)
      Quasi-Palindromes (QP) are imperfect inverted repeats of DNA sequences with the ability to form secondary structures that block the DNA replication fork during DNA synthesis. These structures can cause mutations that have been associated with a variety of genetic diseases. If the DNA replication fork is blocked by QP structures, the main replicative protein, DNA polymerase, can use an alternative method to continue DNA replication, called “template-switching”, which results in a perfect palindrome, synthesized from a quasi-palindromic sequence. Although this is an efficient method, it is known to be mutagenic. It has been shown that template-switch mutations have been promoted after treatment of various well-known drugs such as 5-Azycatidine, an FDA-approved chemotherapy treatment, Azidothymidine (AZT), an antiviral chain terminator, and drugs that inhibit the action of topoisomerase II. The goal of this research project is to establish cellular consequences of additional FDA-approved drugs in QP mutations using E. coli as the model organism. We aim to understand the repercussions of additional drugs in template-switching QP mutations to increase our knowledge of the potential side effects for current FDA-approved drugs. Data from this research can be used to consider susceptibility of QP mutations when approving new drugs.
    • Bioactivity and medicinal properties of verbascum thapsus

      Beirholm, Jacob; MacTaylor, Christine (2021-05-01)
      In this experiment, fungal endophytes, from Verbascum Thapsus, more commonly known as common mullein, were separated to examine for possible medicinal properties. There were thirty chemical compounds that showed possible medicinal properties, ranging from anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory to analgesics and more. These endophytes, from the leaf, were also tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa to determine possible antibacterial properties. For both of the endophytes found in the leaf, there was inhibition observed in all the bacteria besides Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
    • Bioactivity and Possible Medicinal Properties of Limonium (Sea Lavender)

      Bartlett, Holly; MacTaylor, Christine (2021-05-01)
      Sea Lavender plant samples were collected and examined in many different ways to identify any medicinal properties it may have. The plant samples were plated in order to grow endophytes, bacteria or fungus that live within a plant, and later were able to extract the metabolites. The extracts were processed in the Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (LCMS) machine to find any identifiable compounds within the extracts. Twenty identifiable compounds were found and connected to a medicinal use.
    • Bioanalysis of Metabolites Isolated from Endophytic Fungus of Sassafras Albidum Root

      Nolan, Ryan; MacTaylor, Christine; MacTaylor, Christine (2021-05-01)
      Fungal Endophytes were cultured from the root bark of Sassafras albidum. The endophytes were cultivated for their metabolites. These metabolic products were isolated and analyzed for medicinal compounds. The extracted metabolites were tested against both gram (-) and gram (+) bacteria. Inhibition against E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, and V. parahaemolyticus was observed. The samples were also analyzed using liquid chromatography – mass spectrometry (LC-MS) to look for additional compounds of pharmacological interest.
    • Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infection Reduction: Using Evidence to Inform Practice

      Cohen, Christopher; Ebersole, Nancy (2021-05-01)
      Central line-associated bloodstream infections or CLABSIs cause major life-threatening illnesses that have a high prevalence rate within our healthcare industry today. CLABSIs not only cause potentially fatal consequences for patients, but also cost hospitals a substantial amount of money to treat these infections. CLABSIs can result from not only the insertion of the central line from a healthcare provider, but also in the central line care by nursing staff. Therefore, hospitals have implemented standardized “bundles” for central lines to try to reduce the overall amount of CLABSIs. However, many hospitals are not seeing a significant decrease in the number of infections from the time that they adopted these practices. A systematic review of literature was conducted using the CINAHL Plus database to investigate the efforts of trying to reduce the overall occurrence of CLABSIs and the success rates of these practices. Major themes include the implementation of bundles for central lines are not being consistently applied by those working at the bedside. Inconsistency with the implementation of bundles of care for central lines can be attributed to incomplete knowledge of what needs to be done; while the presence of written policies do not ensure policy compliance. Nurses are at the frontline to ensure patient safety and reducing patient risk for acquiring CLABSIs. It is important that nurses identify the barriers to compliance and collaborate to create effective strategies to promote patient safety and lower the overall occurrence of these life-threatening infections.
    • Coleoptera City

      Jones, Nicole D.; Fletcher, Lynn (2021-05-01)
      This project was composed to create a fun way for children to find interest in entomology by presenting the information in the form of a children's book.
    • Confidence of SSU Education Students in Writing Assessments

      Ekstrom, Alyssa; Yakes, Christopher (2021-05-01)
      Salem State University has a newly accredited 4+1 master’s in education program but has been teaching education for decades. Given the newness of the 4+1 program, are the students getting a good idea of what assessments to write, what they look like, and when to do which type of assessment? This study investigates the confidence levels of SSU Education students in writing assessments based on their experiences and classes that they have taken in the School of Education. In order to examine this question, a survey was completed by students in the education program in which they specified their knowledge on each type of assessment (summative and formative), which classes they have taken, what experiences they have had, and how comfortable they are writing both. It is then analyzed by the classes they have taken the program, their comfortability, and knowledge of each assessment.
    • Constraining the Stratigraphy and Depth to Bedrock at the Forest River Salt Marsh in Salem, MA

      Carpi, Katelyn; Hubeny, Bradford (2021-05-01)
      The stratigraphy and depth to bedrock at the Forest River salt marsh in Salem, MA was constrained using seismic refraction methods. A ~2 m layer of peat was found on top of a layer of glaciomarine clay, with a transition layer in between. The depth to bedrock was constrained to greater than 19.5 m. Two surveys were completed and each had different p-wave velocities for both of the materials. The tide and weather conditions were then researched. It was concluded that the change in p-wave velocity from one survey to the next was due to a change in density caused by an increase of moisture in the area.
    • COVID-19 and its effects on student's mental health

      Burnett, Kennady; Lesnikoski, Steven; Monico, Janine; Tocci, Joseph; Hein, Andrea (2021-05-01)
      The purpose of this study is to address the effects of COVID-19 and stress on undergraduate students studying social work at Salem State University. This is a primarily quantitative, non-experimental cross sectional research study. We will be collecting data using the perceived stress scale. In relation to feeling stress, the study will be looking at demographic information including age, gender, race, and grade level. The data will be tested using ANOVA with the purpose of finding the mean between each different population group. Our hypothesis for this study is that online learning, due to the COVID- 19 pandemic, negatively affects students' mindset studying social work at Salem State University. The data synthesized to form this hypothesis includes the independent variable COVID-19 virus.
    • Creating a Musical Space: The effect of room dimensions on different instrumental families

      MacTaylor, Allan; Conlin, Luke; Conlin, Luke (2021-05-01)
      Instruments with several different sound creation methods, a trombone, a guitar, and a violin were compared by looking at their overtone series and dominant frequencies. This was repeated in rooms of varying sizes, and pitches were compared between the room’s resonant frequency, and non-resonant frequencies.
    • Easing the Emotional Burden of Families When a Child Has Cancer: The Application of Evidence to Nursing Practice

      Aliberti, Mary; Ebersole, Nancy (2021-05-01)
      The nurse’s role in caring for a child with cancer has its challenges, but when done correctly can positively affect the well-being of a patient and their family. Both the patient and family go through major psychosocial shifts from the time that the child receives the diagnosis of cancer. This time of considerable transition can leave families feeling lost during an already uncertain period. Keeping patients and family members involved throughout the course of treatment is essential for the success of effective care. The database CINAHL Plus was used to do a systematic review of the literature to identify common issues in pediatric oncology nursing practice and the toll that this can take on patients and their family’s mental well-being. Common themes identified in the literature are family members are in different developmental stages and each requires a unique approach; caregiver knowledge or lack thereof is a major factor in family well-being; and a child’s ability to communicate and be heard impacts how the need for care is perceived and provided. This is an important topic because nurses must consider the psychosocial needs of the family unit as well the physical needs when it comes to providing optimal care. Dealing with a diagnosis as harmful as cancer is a considerable amount of stress to be put on a young child and the family. Knowledge of what is currently known will lead to more effective communication with patients and family members, resulting in greater health outcomes.
    • Effects of Road Construction to Marginalized Community and Biodiversity

      Pokharel, Rejina; Delissio, Lisa (2021-05-01)
      The construction of roads is a recognized cause of habitat fragmentation, a major factor in biodiversity loss. At the same time, road construction may either harm or benefit low-income, native, or otherwise marginalized populations. I hypothesize that 1) road construction that is harmful to marginalized people is also harmful to biodiversity. 2) part of the harm to marginalized people from road construction arises from the harm to biodiversity.
    • Endophytic Species Linked to Medicinal uses of Juniperus communis

      Bracero, Jasmine; MacTaylor, Christine (2021-05-01)
      In this research study, fungal endophytes were isolated and analyzed for its medicinal uses from Juniperus Communis, commonly known as Juniper. A sample of Juniperus communis was collected from the Salt Marsh located at Salem State University. Sections of the stem, berry, and leaf were tested against E.coli, Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas, and Vibrio to determine any antibacterial properties. Further examination of extracts were analyzed using LC-MS. Twenty constitutes were recovered and analyzed for their medicinal capabilities.
    • Geochronology and Petrology of Coronitic Metagabbro and Garnetiferous Amphibolite in the Adirondack Mountains, Newcomb, New York

      Love, Tiarra; Toraman, Erkan; Toraman, Erkan (2021-05-01)
      The Adirondack Mountains form the southern extension of the Grenville Province, an orogeny that formed during the formation of supercontinent Rodinia in the late Mesoproterozoic. This orogenesis can be defined by three major phases over 250 million years: the Elzevirian (1245 – 1225 Ma), the Shawinigan (1200 – 1160 Ma), and the Grenville orogeny that is further subdivided into two phases the Ottawan (1090 – 1020 Ma) and the Rigolet (1010 – 980 Ma). The Adirondacks can be defined by two geologic terranes: the Adirondack Highlands and the Adirondack Lowlands. The Highlands are composed of granulite facies metamorphic and igneous rocks (AMCG unit) while the Lowlands are characterized by amphibolite-facies metasedimentary and meta-igneous rocks. These terranes are separated by the Colton Carthage Mylonite Zone. Small bodies of metagabbro and garnetiferous amphibolites that are genetically related to the AMCG unit are exposed in the Highlands, although their timing and conditions of magmatism and metamorphism are unknown. We collected samples of coronitic metagabbro to garnetiferous amphibolite units and applied petrographic analysis coupled with U-Pb zircon geochronology. Our results show the coronitic metagabbro exhibited three age populations of 1147±8 Ma, 1036±7 Ma, and 1026±5 Ma. Zircons from the garnetiferous amphibolite sample yield an age of 1046± 54 Ma. These ages show that magmatism occurred in Shawinigan while metamorphism took place during the Ottawan phase.
    • Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles using Lemon Extract, Characterization, and Antimicrobial Properties

      Biv, Kelly; Nolan, Ryan; Kelly, Paul; MacTaylor, Christine; Yatin, Mustafa (2021-05-01)
      A greener method of synthesizing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using lemon extract was investigated in this study. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized using the ultraviolet–visible (UV–Vis) spectrometer and the scanning electron microscope (SEM) machine. Both the UV–Vis spectra and SEM images indicated the presence of AgNPs and metallic silver particles. The antimicrobial properties of AgNPs were tested using the disk diffusion agar method on four different bacteria: Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus; zones of inhibition were observed.
    • Investigating FDA-Approved Anti-Tumor Drugs for Effects on Template-Switch Mutagenesis (TSM) and Mechanism of SOS response in E. coli

      Addorisio, Sydney R.; Laranjo, Laura; Laranjo, Laura (2021-05-01)
      Quasipalindromes (QPs) are imperfect inverted repeats of DNA that are known to form secondary structures (such as hairpins and cruciforms). QPs sites have also been associated with a specific class of mutation known as template-switch mutations (TSM). It is known that TSM can be caused by the addition of drugs such as 5-azaC, AZT, and ciprofloxacin. This study aims to analyze the effects of three FDA approved antitumor drugs, CPT-11, Temozolomide, and Doxorubicin hydrochloride for their ability to promote or prevent template-switch mutagenesis and, if there is an increase in mutation rates, we aim to clarify by what mechanism that effect is induced. To do this, we use a previously published TSM reporter in the lacZ gene that provides both a qualitative and quantitative measure of TSM frequencies. Using this established system, we study mutation frequencies and rates in both the leading and lagging strand of DNA to provide possible pathways that lead to TSM. Our data proposes mechanisms of mutations that are correlated to each drug mode of action.