• The Evolution of the Forest River Water Quality Due to Anthropogenic Impacts

      Reid, Brianna M.; Hanson, Lindley; Allen, Douglas (2021-05-01)
      The northeast United States faces harsh winters, resulting in the widespread application of road salts (NaCl) beginning in the1960’s. Road salt is a chemical deicing agent, which enters into streams and ponds via runoff and infiltration into the groundwater system. The widespread application of salt to roads, walkways, and parking lots is known to pollute urban watersheds. The focus of this study is Ducks Pond, located in the Forest River watershed in Salem, MA, and is part of an ongoing investigation to monitor the effect of development in and around the reservation. Pure water cannot transmit an electrical current. However, the ability of an aqueous solution to conduct a current is a measurable physical property known as its conductivity. Because conductivity is temperature dependent, measurements must be taken at or standardized to 25° Celsius, for comparison. With increasing concentrations of chloride from salt application through runoff, specific conductance will also increase showing a positive relationship which can be measured using a multiparameter probe. Previous water quality data, obtained in 2018, showed Ducks Pond was completely clear of chloride ions while other water bodies within the watershed, all walking distance of each other, had high concentrations. The lack of salt pollution in Ducks Pond is hypothesized to be the result of natural isolation by topographic highs, in combination with a railroad embankment that effectively cut off the pond from the rest of the watershed. To add to existing data, specific conductance, temperature, dissolved oxygen, and pH were measured at 5 locations in the fall of 2020 and the spring of 2021 using a YSI 6600 multiparameter sonde. The results are consistent with the data from 2018. All results support the hypothesis that Ducks Pond is a subwatershed, which is isolated from pollution both naturally and as a result of construction of the Boston and Maine Railroad embankment in the late 1800’s.
    • Morphology, Orientation, and Distribution of Explosive Craters in the Nyambeni Hills Volcanic Field

      Thompson, Sharissa; Van Hazinga, Cora; Mana, Sara; Muirhead, James; Mana, Sara (2021-05-01)
      The Nyambeni Hills (Kenya) is a shield volcano found along the eastern branch of the East African Rift (EAR). This volcano is pierced by a volcanic field populated with scoria cones, maar craters, and lava flows of Late Pleistocene to Holocene age, referred to as the Nyambeni Hills Volcanic Field (NHVF). Volcanic fields composed of monogenetic explosive cones can be observed along the EAR. Through close examination of the morphology and alignments of such features, magma paths can be inferred. Such magma paths are expected to develop perpendicular to the regional tensile stress (σ3) and along fracture systems in a rift zone. Here we present our findings on the analysis of these explosive volcanic features found in NHVF. Google Earth Pro is utilized to map outlines of craters and cones. The morphometry of each cone is analyzed for erosional marks and slope angle to determine the area and shape of the original feature before erosion. The degree of confidence for each feature is reported to allow for a more informed data analysis. ArcGIS is used to find minimum bounding geometry data. Trends of the long axes of high confidence features with a short axis/long axis ratio greater than 1.2 provide an estimate of the orientation of that feature and are graphically expressed in a rose diagram. Data has been collected on >300 cones within the northeastern slopes of the NHVF. Here both the long axis of the most reliable basaltic scoria cones and the linear distribution of the various features, represented by the near angle relationships of all cones, indicate a general NE-SW trend. This bearing diverges from the overall N-S trend of the rift but is similar to the observed orientation of other volcanic features in the Kenya Rift (e.g. Mega Volcanic Field, South Natron and Marsabit). A NE-SW trend could suggest a NW-SE orientation of σ3 or could be explained by the presence of pre-existing lithospheric weaknesses in the host rock influencing the direction of dikes.
    • Geochronology and Petrology of Coronitic Metagabbro and Garnetiferous Amphibolite in the Adirondack Mountains, Newcomb, New York

      Love, Tiarra; Toraman, Erkan; Toraman, Erkan (2021-05-01)
      The Adirondack Mountains form the southern extension of the Grenville Province, an orogeny that formed during the formation of supercontinent Rodinia in the late Mesoproterozoic. This orogenesis can be defined by three major phases over 250 million years: the Elzevirian (1245 – 1225 Ma), the Shawinigan (1200 – 1160 Ma), and the Grenville orogeny that is further subdivided into two phases the Ottawan (1090 – 1020 Ma) and the Rigolet (1010 – 980 Ma). The Adirondacks can be defined by two geologic terranes: the Adirondack Highlands and the Adirondack Lowlands. The Highlands are composed of granulite facies metamorphic and igneous rocks (AMCG unit) while the Lowlands are characterized by amphibolite-facies metasedimentary and meta-igneous rocks. These terranes are separated by the Colton Carthage Mylonite Zone. Small bodies of metagabbro and garnetiferous amphibolites that are genetically related to the AMCG unit are exposed in the Highlands, although their timing and conditions of magmatism and metamorphism are unknown. We collected samples of coronitic metagabbro to garnetiferous amphibolite units and applied petrographic analysis coupled with U-Pb zircon geochronology. Our results show the coronitic metagabbro exhibited three age populations of 1147±8 Ma, 1036±7 Ma, and 1026±5 Ma. Zircons from the garnetiferous amphibolite sample yield an age of 1046± 54 Ma. These ages show that magmatism occurred in Shawinigan while metamorphism took place during the Ottawan phase.
    • Confidence of SSU Education Students in Writing Assessments

      Ekstrom, Alyssa; Yakes, Christopher (2021-05-01)
      Salem State University has a newly accredited 4+1 master’s in education program but has been teaching education for decades. Given the newness of the 4+1 program, are the students getting a good idea of what assessments to write, what they look like, and when to do which type of assessment? This study investigates the confidence levels of SSU Education students in writing assessments based on their experiences and classes that they have taken in the School of Education. In order to examine this question, a survey was completed by students in the education program in which they specified their knowledge on each type of assessment (summative and formative), which classes they have taken, what experiences they have had, and how comfortable they are writing both. It is then analyzed by the classes they have taken the program, their comfortability, and knowledge of each assessment.
    • Joy's Morning

      Quinn, Molly; McLyman, Meghan (2021-05-01)
      A children's book for dance class that takes students through the brain dance, a body and mind warmup for movers.
    • The Significance of the Microbiome: It's Role in Infant Development and Long-Term Health

      Haro, Lariza; Ebersole, Nancy (2021-05-01)
      Humans enjoy a beneficial symbiotic relationship with bacteria. Although commonly thought to be the cause of illness, bacteria aid in food digestion along with creating resistance to disease. The microbiome refers to the aggregate of bacteria that reside in our intestinal track. There has been an effort over the past decade to map the human microbiome in order to identify this relationship. Given this crucial role of microbiota in human health, it is important to know how the microbiome is formed in infancy as it may impact one’s future ability to obtain wellness. A review of the literature was done to examine what is known of the microbiome at the earliest stage of life and the relationship to issues later in life. The articles were identified using the databases CINAHL, PubMed, and MEDLINE. Five themes were identified across the articles studied. The microbiome: (a) of preterm infants differs from full-term infants; (b) at birth is found in both the lungs and intestines; (c) development is affected by an infant’s intake of formula vs. breastmilk; (d) present and its amount present during infancy may influence the risk of developing behavioral issues; (e) development is altered when antibiotics are administered to newborns/infants. The choices of how a child will be fed is decided during pregnancy and consideration of the microbiome and its effect on future health has serious implications. Knowledge of the microbiome’s role in healthy growth and development should be considered when working with expectant mothers, parents and families of newborns.
    • Using the Ketogenic Diet to Reduce the Incidence of Pediatric Seizures: Helping Children and Families to Find a Better Quality of Life

      Wohler, Alison; Ebersole, Nancy (2021-05-01)
      The use of diet modifications to control seizures is showing promise as an alternative to medications in pediatric patients.
    • Coleoptera City

      Jones, Nicole D.; Fletcher, Lynn (2021-05-01)
      This project was composed to create a fun way for children to find interest in entomology by presenting the information in the form of a children's book.
    • Survey of European Green Crabs and Asian Shore Crabs in Salem Sound

      Sahloul, Sami; Almadani, Nadir; Young, Alan (2021-05-01)
      The European green crab (Carcinus maenas) has been the dominant crab species in New England rocky intertidal zones since the late 1800’s, but since around 2000 they have begun to be outcompeted by a new invasive species, the Asian shore crab (Hemigrapsus sanguineus). ​ Rocky intertidal zones at Pavilion Beach in Ipswich, MA and Chandler Hovey Park in Marblehead, MA were surveyed for both species monthly at low tide from June 2019 through April 2021. Asian shore crabs made up 89% of all crabs surveyed compared to European green crabs (11%). Also, at both sites, the average carapace width of European green crabs was found to be larger than that of the Asian shore crabs collected. From this survey, it appears that Asian shore crabs are outcompeting European green crabs at these locations.
    • Medicinal Examination of Fungal Endophytes in Various Common Mushrooms

      Wilson, Liam T.; MacTaylor, Christine; MacTaylor, Christine (2021-05-01)
      Button, hen of the woods, oyster, shiitake, and crimini mushrooms are common household mushrooms known for their health benefits and potential use for medicines. This research aimed to explore the connections between the isolated fungal endophytes of the aforementioned mushrooms and their potential medicinal uses.
    • The Medicinal Value of Endophytes in Prunus serotina, the Wild Cherry Tree

      Wilson, Liam T.; MacTaylor, Christine; MacTaylor, Christine (2021-05-01)
      The Prunus serotina otherwise known as the wild cherry tree has been used in herbal medicine for years. This research aimed to explore the connections between the isolated fungal endophytes of the tree with their potential medicinal uses.
    • Mapping Cross-Cutting Joints in Cape Ann to Establish Past Stress Orientations

      Cassias, Alyssa; Van Hazinga, Cora; Mana, Sara (2021-05-01)
      The Cape Ann Granite, part of the Cape Ann Plutonic Complex, ranges from 431 to 424 Ma. It is a massive, medium to coarse grained alkali granite. Previous studies indicate that the Cape Ann Granite intruded prior to the beginning of the Acadian Orogeny, when Avalonia accreted to Laurentia. In Gloucester and Rockport, Massachusetts, the Cape Ann Granite is cross cut by multiple faults and joints. Our study focuses on mapping and recording joint orientations in the Cape Ann Granite. These are then subdivided into joint sets based on their orientation after plotting them on a rose diagram. Based on our understanding of the spatial relationship between newly developed joints and the principal stress axes σ1 (maximum principal stress), σ2 (intermediate principal stress) and σ3 (minimum principal stress), inferences can be made about the orientation of the paleo-stresses necessary to create the observed patterns of joints. Additionally, the relative timing of various joint sets can be investigated by looking at relative cross cutting relationships. In fact, joints do not cross-cut older joints but rather terminate along pre-existing joints.
    • Stressors of first-generation versus non-first-generation college students

      Fox, Miranda; Alesy, Petrina; DiChiara, Katelyn; Flores, Karina; Hein, Andrea (2021-05-01)
      The purpose of this study is to research the stress levels between first-generation college students versus non-first-generation college students.
    • Mental Health Stigmas Among Salem State Students

      Schultz, Astrid; Levine, Hannah; Theodorakakakos, Evangelia; Romero-Velasquez, Keyla; Benoit, Brieanna; Hein, Andrea (2021-05-01)
      Within this research proposal we will be discussing mental illness and the stigmas that surround it. The effect of not speaking on the matter has resulted in backlash and negative connotations for receiving help. Many individuals have struggled without assistance. This research proposal will delve into the issue of mental illness and the stigmas that surround it. In many cultures, mental illness has been looked upon as something to be ashamed of, resulting in a neglected system for treatment. People suffering with mental health issues are reluctant to seek help, and when they do seek help, adequate treatment is not available.
    • Investigating Systematic Barriers to Higher Education

      Slipkowsky, John; Berry, Fard; Sneed, Rosimara; Hein, Andrea (2021-05-01)
      Our research study focuses on uncovering the barriers that BSW students at Salem State University may encounter towards achieving their higher education goals, particularly students who belong to historically marginalized groups. Existing issues of accessibility and sustainability in higher education will be thoroughly investigated, as well as the conditions whereby inequalities may be perpetuated. In doing so, the researchers aim to identify the root causes of disparities to cultivate workable solutions which will lead to a more equitable future for all students and significantly increase positive outcomes pursuant to social justice within the realm of higher education.
    • Teaching Entomology Through Childrens Stories

      Kemp, Lindsey; Fletcher, Lynn (2021-05-01)
      There are very few children's books that teach them about insects. This project was designed to help children learn and understand entomology through stories. The requirements of this project was to research about an insect order and a few different families. When collecting information, primary and secondary sources were used, and a bibliography was developed to help keep a record of the sources. Information about an insect's life history, behaviors, and morphological adaptations were researched for creating this story.
    • Bioactivity and Possible Medicinal Properties of Limonium (Sea Lavender)

      Bartlett, Holly; MacTaylor, Christine (2021-05-01)
      Sea Lavender plant samples were collected and examined in many different ways to identify any medicinal properties it may have. The plant samples were plated in order to grow endophytes, bacteria or fungus that live within a plant, and later were able to extract the metabolites. The extracts were processed in the Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (LCMS) machine to find any identifiable compounds within the extracts. Twenty identifiable compounds were found and connected to a medicinal use.
    • Sea Lavender Endophyte's

      Marks, Rachel; MacTaylor, Christine (2021-05-01)
      Endophytes were collected from the stem and leaves of Limonium, most commonly known as Sea Lavender. The Endophytes are fungus and bacteria that live on a plant without causing the plant harm. Endophytes are known to often contain medicinal properties. This study identified antibacterial properties in addition to the 15 medicinal compounds of interest produced by Limonium’s endophytes from the salt marsh located on the central campus at SSU.
    • Potential Medicinal Properties of Fungal Endophytes Isolated from Salicornia depressa

      Biv, Kelly; Debrow, Justin; MacTaylor, Christine (2021-05-01)
      The fungal endophytes from the stem and roots of Salicornia depressa, commonly known as glassworts, were isolated and its medicinal properties were looked at. Both endophytes had a very similar strength of inhibition against E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, and V. parahaemolyticus. Further analysis was done to obtain the chemical compounds of the endophytes on the liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS) machine.
    • Creating a Musical Space: The effect of room dimensions on different instrumental families

      MacTaylor, Allan; Conlin, Luke; Conlin, Luke (2021-05-01)
      Instruments with several different sound creation methods, a trombone, a guitar, and a violin were compared by looking at their overtone series and dominant frequencies. This was repeated in rooms of varying sizes, and pitches were compared between the room’s resonant frequency, and non-resonant frequencies.