Now showing items 21-40 of 67

    • Todos Estamos Satisfechos? Are We All Satisfied? A Review of the Literature

      Fraley, Hannah; Crampton, Taylor (2015-05-01)
      United States healthcare is experiencing a growing need for medical interpretation among diverse populations. Of note, the Hispanic population is steadily growing reaching upwards of 17% of the US population. The Hispanic patient experience and perception of care is poorly understood in the context of patient to provider communication in the US, despite 62% of Hispanics primarily speaking Spanish and limited English. A review of the literature was conducted, the Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) database was exhaustively searched for English language research published between 2000 and October 2014 that identified disparities between Spanish-speakers and English-speakers regarding their healthcare experiences. Keyword searches included the following: Spanish speaking patients, patient satisfaction, and health disparity. Of twenty-five articles initially yielded by the search strategy, seventeen articles were selected that met inclusion criteria for further analysis and review. Within these articles, it appeared that patients generally did experience a lower rate of satisfaction as compared to English-speaking patients regarding their healthcare providers and the language utilized. Contrastingly, an article described a population of Spanish-speaking patients whose language barrier was not reported as an issue when being assessed for domestic violence. Limited research exists which targets the Hispanic patient population and language barriers faced when communicating with their health care providers. This presents an important gap in the literature to consider for this patient population specifically their experiences and perceptions of how care is delivered in the US. Culturally relevant research is needed in order to appropriately change the way in which health care is delivered to this population, which will ultimately improve patient to provider communication and health literacy.
    • A Literature Review of the Onset of Social Media and its Effect on HIPPA Violations

      Magazzu, Tammi; Bogosian, Jamie (2014-05-17)
      Social media has become increasingly popular in the United States and is accessed daily. It consists of different websites such as Facebook and Twitter. Access to these websites is easy and fast, allowing users to frequently network. In many situations, social media can be utilized in a positive manner. However, in fields such as nursing, social media can be detrimental. The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, HIPAA, provides specific and strict regulations regarding the use of social media in the medical field. Breaching patient confidentiality can jeopardize a nurse’s job and future career. With the onset of social media, HIPAA violations have increased. This thesis will provide a literature review of social media and its onset, and how it affected HIPAA. I will show how these websites have caused more violations of HIPAA, and provide interventions and suggestions to decrease the violations. Specific methods will be included to show how the problem can be fixed. In addition, a brief history of social media will be provided to illustrate how it is extremely prevalent.
    • Sexually Transmitted Infections in the Elderly: Nursing Implications for Prevention and Education

      Leger, Robin; Winslow, Catherine (2014-05-17)
      This study will examine why the elderly population in the United States is at high risk for contracting and spreading sexually transmitted diseases. Through a review of literature, many different risk factors will be identified and discussed. The study will also include methods of prevention to protect this population. Education strategies will also be discussed, not only for the members of the elderly population, but for the health care professionals who treat them. By identifying risk factors, providing education, and learning about prevention, the rate sexually transmitted diseases are being spread will decrease among the elderly population.
    • Using the Ketogenic Diet to Reduce the Incidence of Pediatric Seizures: Helping Children and Families to Find a Better Quality of Life

      Ebersole, Nancy; Nowka, Scott; Gonsalves, Joanna; Wohler, Alison (2021-05-01)
      Seizure disorders have both medical as well as quality of life implications for anyone experiencing them. The use of medications to control and manage this disorder is not always effective and may cause side effects that discourage compliance with the prescribed drugs. All of these concerns are especially problematic for children with seizures and their families. The use of diet modifications to control seizures is showing promise as an alternative to medications. The high fat, ketogenic diet as well as the low glycemic index diet are being investigated to control seizures in children. A systematic review of the literature was done in the CINAHL Plus database. The themes identified across the studies are (a) the ketogenic diet was effective in reducing seizures whereas the low glycemic index diet was not; (b) compliance with diet changes is a significant concern in this patient population; (c) parents view quality of life differently than the children with seizure disorders and this can impact diet adherence; and (d) how this diet interacts with medications and alters other body functions must be considered when using the ketogenic diet for seizure management. These results indicate an opportunity for nurses to work with families and the health care team to reduce the incidence of seizures, improve treatment compliance, and enhance the quality of life. A treatment option which provides for the needs and desires of both the individual and the parents can strengthen the family unit and promote healthy outcomes for all.
    • Minimizing The Risk Of Orthopedic Surgical Site Infections In The Pediatric Population: Using Evidence To Inform Practice

      Ebersole, Nancy; Gridley, Alaina (2021-05-01)
      Surgical site infections are some of the most common hospital-acquired infections and are associated with higher rates of morbidity and mortality for patients. Surgical site infections can also increase length of hospital stay for patients and elevate healthcare costs. There is extensive literature exploring risk factors associated with acquiring surgical site infections in adults undergoing orthopedic surgery, however, literature exploring this topic in the pediatric population is limited. Additionally, many interventions and assumed risks within the pediatric population are extrapolated from data collected from adults. A systematic review of the literature was done using the CINAHL database to identify risk factors associated with acquiring surgical site infections in the pediatric orthopedic patient population and interventions to help mitigate these risks. The result of these studies showed that both weight and nutritional status played a role in predicting the incidences of acquiring a surgical site infection. Additionally, prophylactic antibiotic selection and dosing needs to be specific to both the possible pathogen and the patient. A bundle approach to interventions can help to reduce the rate of surgical site infections, however, strict compliance amongst staff can be difficult to ensure. It is imperative as healthcare professionals that we work lo identify associated risk factors for developing surgical site infections within the pediatric population undergoing orthopedic surgery. The identification of these risk factors can guide evidence-based practice to establish interventions that can mitigate these risks and promote health and safety for the pediatric population.
    • The Significance Of The Microbiome: It's Role In Infant Development And Long-Term Health

      Ebersole, Nancy; Haro, Lariza (2021-05-01)
      Humans enjoy a beneficial symbiotic relationship with bacteria. Although commonly thought to be the cause of illness, bacteria aid in food digestion along with creating resistance to disease. The microbiome refers to the aggregate of bacteria that reside in our intestinal track. There has been an effort over the past decade to map the human microbiome in order to identify this relationship. Given this crucial role of microbiota in human health, it is important to know how the microbiome is formed in infancy as it may impact one’s future ability to obtain wellness. A review of the literature was done to examine what is known of the microbiome at the earliest stage of life and the relationship to issues later in life. The articles were identified using the databases CINAHL, PubMed, and MEDLINE. Five themes were identified across the articles studied. The microbiome: (a) of preterm infants differs from full-term infants; (b) at birth is found in both the lungs and intestines; (c) development is affected by an infant’s intake of formula vs. breastmilk; (d) present and its amount present during infancy may influence the risk of developing behavioral issues; (e) development is altered when antibiotics are administered to newborns/infants. The choices of how a child will be fed is decided during pregnancy and consideration of the microbiome and its effect on future health has serious implications. Knowledge of the microbiome’s role in healthy growth and development should be considered when working with expectant mothers, parents and families of newborns.
    • Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injuries: Challenges in Providing Effective Patient Care and Importance of Proper Family Support

      Ebersole, Nancy; Conners, Kaitlyn (2021-05-01)
      The human brain is one of the most important, yet least understood, organs in the human body. This functional unit innervates every aspect of human life and is ever changing from conception until full maturity around age 25. Considering this, it makes sense that pediatric traumatic brain injuries are so misunderstood. Attempting to diagnose and monitor a traumatic injury to a complex organ that is still growing and developing is challenging for clinicians. Proper interaction with these children and their families is vital to physical health and psychosocial development. Identifying current knowledge and disseminating it is crucial for planning interventions and promoting healthy outcomes. A review of the literature was done using the CINAHL database, and articles collected identify themes that are important and unique to caring for these patients. The themes are (a) impact of age at time of injury on post injury behavior; (b) importance of proper identification of TBI related behaviors and appropriate interventions; (c) relationship between severity of injury and post injury behaviors; (d) patient challenges with internalizing and externalizing problems; and (e) role of home environment on post injury behaviors and recovery process. When caring for this patient population, it is important for health care providers to not use a "one size fits all" approach, as each patient will have a different presentation and different needs based on the factors listed above. The themes identified here provide a point of reference for clinicians when planning care for children who have experienced a traumatic brain injury.
    • Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infection Reduction: Using Evidence to Inform Practice

      Ebersole, Nancy; Cohen, Christopher (2021-05-01)
      Central line-associated bloodstream infections or CLABSIs cause major life-threatening illnesses that have a high prevalence rate within our healthcare industry today. CLABSIs not only cause potentially fatal consequences for patients, but also cost hospitals a substantial amount of money to treat these infections. CLABSIs can result from not only the insertion of the central line from a healthcare provider, but also in the central line care by nursing staff. Therefore, hospitals have implemented standardized "bundles" for central lines to try to reduce the overall amount of CLABSIs. However, many hospitals are not seeing a significant decrease in the number of infections from the time that they adopted these practices. A systematic review of literature was conducted using the CINAHL Plus database to investigate the efforts of trying to reduce the overall occurrence of CLABSIs and the success rates of these practices. Major themes include the implementation of bundles for central lines are not being consistently applied by those working at the bedside. Inconsistency with the implementation of bundles of care for central lines can be attributed to incomplete knowledge of what needs to be done; while the presence of written policies do not ensure policy compliance. Nurses are at the frontline to ensure patient safety and reducing patient risk for acquiring CLABSIs. It is important that nurses identify the barriers to compliance and collaborate to create effective strategies to promote patient safety and lower the overall occurrence of these life-threatening infections.
    • Easing the Emotional Burden of Families When a Child Has Cancer: The Application of Evidence to Nursing Practice

      Ebersole, Nancy; Aliberti, Mary (2021-05-01)
      The nurse’s role in caring for a child with cancer has its challenges, but when done correctly can positively affect the well-being of a patient and their family. Both the patient and family go through major psychosocial shifts from the time that the child receives the diagnosis of cancer. This time of considerable transition can leave families feeling lost during an already uncertain period. Keeping patients and family members involved throughout the course of treatment is essential for the success of effective care. The database CINAHL Plus was used to do a systematic review of the literature to identify common issues in pediatric oncology nursing practice and the toll that this can take on patients and their family’s mental well-being. Common themes identified in the literature are family members are in different developmental stages and each requires a unique approach; caregiver knowledge or lack thereof is a major factor in family well-being; and a child’s ability to communicate and be heard impacts how the need for care is perceived and provided. This is an important topic because nurses must consider the psychosocial needs of the family unit as well the physical needs when it comes to providing optimal care. Dealing with a diagnosis as harmful as cancer is a considerable amount of stress to be put on a young child and the family. Knowledge of what is currently known will lead to more effective communication with patients and family members, resulting in greater health outcomes.
    • An Evaluation Of Knowledge And Perception Amongst Nursing Students Pertaining To Ibuprofen

      Ebersole, Nancy; Nowka, Scott; Pelletier, Jacqueline (2020-05-01)
      Ibuprofen is one of the most common over-the-counter pain medications accessible to consumers. It is known that ibuprofen can be dangerous to certain individuals (Curfman, 2015). This includes people who take this drug over prolonged periods of time, those who do not follow the necessary instructions/precautions, who may have heart disease or gastrointestinal complications, and others who may be at high risk for non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use. A 16-item questionnaire was developed to assess: a) how and when the decision is made to take pain medication, b) knowledge of recommendations and precautions related to the use of ibuprofen, c) how the decision is made to determine the amount of medication to take, and d) knowledge of potentially dangerous side effects. The data of this survey showed that a majority of nursing students knew critical components to proper use of ibuprofen. It also demonstrated upperclassmen students to contain more knowledge regarding ibuprofen dosaging than underclassmen. Although there were important educational points that students knew pertaining to ibuprofen, there were also gaps in the necessary knowledge that the survey indicated. With appropriate education and teaching of this common over-the-counter medication, it can decrease the risk for potentially dangerous complications in certain individuals. Due to this drug being so widely used and easily accessible, preventing improper use is essential for protecting our communities.
    • Prenatal Counseling and Marijuana; Professional Challenges to the Nurse-Patient Relationship

      Ebersole, Nancy; Nowka, Scott; Dunnigan, Shea (2020-05-01)
      Prenatal counseling is imperative to ensure a safe and healthy pregnancy. With the recent change in legal status regarding marijuana in the United States, challenges for counseling have arose. It is important that healthcare providers are screening women for marijuana use during their prenatal visits, in order to initiate the proper counseling needed for their patients. Considering that THC, the main component in marijuana, can enter the fetal brain, it is crucial for healthcare providers to educate pregnant women on the effects that it can cause to their child. A systematic review of the literature was done using CINAHL database to identify the needs of pregnant women and the challenges to healthcare providers pertaining to marijuana use. The results of the studies showed that there are barriers related to counseling—how counseling is initiated, the quality of information provided by the healthcare team, and the perception of counseling. Counseling is not always initiated by the provider, whether they feel the patient is not using or because they do not want to deal with the legal and ethical issues of the situation if they are using. The information provided by the healthcare team lacks detail and quality, due to limited amount of research on the topic. Healthcare providers admit that they do not know what to tell their patients about marijuana use during pregnancy. Counseling did differ depending on whether the patient disclosed current or past marijuana use, which is why women fear telling their healthcare providers. More research must be done regarding how marijuana may affect the fetus and newborn. This information needs to be provided to obstetric healthcare workers, so that they can pass it on to their patients.
    • Factors That Affect An Adolescent Mother’s Decision To Breastfeed: A Systematic Review Of The Literature

      Ebersole, Nancy; Faranna, Lena; Guillen, Ashley (2020-05-01)
      Adolescent mothers do not breastfeed for the recommended duration of six months in comparison to the general population of those who are actively breastfeeding. Two systematic reviews of the literature were conducted to identify the factors that lead to breastfeeding cessation and the types of social support that healthcare providers implement when caring for adolescent mothers. Adolescent mothers’ decision to stop breastfeeding is to due to intrinsic and extrinsic reasons. Support from health care providers is essential in resolving any factors that lead to breastfeeding cessation. Health care providers should consider informational, instrumental, emotional, appraisal/esteem, and network support, when responding to the needs of adolescent mothers. The results of this systematic review provides healthcare professionals with evidence to support adolescent mothers with strategies to breastfeed for the recommended duration of six months.
    • Putting A Stop to Nursing Burnout Before It Starts

      Ebersole, Nancy; Aymat, Alicia (2020-05-01)
      Burnout is defined as physical, mental, and emotional exhaustion. Nursing burnout is frequently seen within this profession. Questions have arisen on whether or not nursing burnout formulates during the working phase or before while attending nursing school. If students present signs and symptoms of nursing burnout during nursing school and before entering the professional field, these factors may predispose these new graduates to experience burnout earlier in their professional careers than new graduates who did not experience this. A systematic review of the literature was conducted. A Boolean search was used with the keywords: nursing burnout, nursing students, new graduate nurses, and nursing school. Six articles met the criteria for inclusion in this systematic review of the literature. Two themes were identified: emotional responses and coping skills, and emotional responses and year of study. The strength of a student’s coping skills is a consistent theme in each of the articles studied. The stress is not felt equally however within each year of a 4-year program. First and fourth year students report significantly less stress than those in their second and third year. Emotional exhaustion during the second and third years creates difficulties as the student prepares to enter professional practice in the fourth year. A process to recognize factors in a student, which predisposes them to burnout once they enter professional practice, is needed. In doing so, recognizing emotional exhaustion early will help students to develop stronger coping skills and promote behaviors that will lower the risk of burnout.
    • Does Maternal Breastfeeding Have Positive Long-Term Effects on Neurocognitive Development?

      Adee, Kathleen; Anonymous (2019-05-01)
      This study comprised a systematic review of literature based on the, long-term benefits of maternal breastfeeding on neurocognitive development in children. The immediate known benefits of breastfeeding are well documented throughout numerous research studies such as nutritional benefits and immunological growth. However, there are limited studies on the long-term effects of maternal breast feeding. The purpose of this research is to review literature on the long-term effects of maternal breastfeeding on neurocognitive development in children, specifically focusing on intelligence and language development. A total of 10 articles met the inclusion criteria and were used for this literature review. Among the different studies, the ages that were assessed are from the first year of life throughout 15 years of life. A positive impact is suggested after reviewing the research, but it only has a minor impact when being compared to children who were either formula fed or fed for shorter durations. The research reviewed shows positive effects on intelligence and language among children as old as 15 but due to the lack of existing literature, long-term benefits of neurocognitive development into adulthood could not be assessed.
    • Communication Techniques Used by Medical and Surgical Nurses to Communicate with Patients with Alzheimer's Disease

      Frost, Marion; Mathieu, Chelsea (2014-05-17)
      Through the process of a literature review and an online survey of medical and surgical nurses currently working in the hospital environment, this study investigates “Techniques Used by Medical and Surgical Nurses to Communicate with Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease.” The literature review covers current research explaining how Alzheimer’s disease affects a person’s ability to verbally communicate and ability to understand verbal communication. The research also covers the most effective communication techniques to utilize when communicating with a person with Alzheimer’s disease. Nurses in the medical and surgical fields have been given an online survey which includes demographic information, scenarios, and various communication techniques that could be implemented when talking to someone with Alzheimer’s disease. The information from the online survey has been analyzed for trends to show if nurses are using the proper techniques when communicating or if they are following the misconceptions. This study contributes to an area of research that is lacking information, as well as explores if medical and surgical nurses are communicating effectively with an ever growing population of patients with Alzheimer’s disease.
    • Effective Non-Pharmacological Pain Relief Interventions For Pediatric Patients: A Systematic Review Of The Literature

      Ebersole, Nancy; Acuna, Ariana (2019-12-01)
      Managing pediatric pain is an important role of the registered nurse. This can be a challenge, as pediatric patients often do not have the ability or the vocabulary to verbalize that they are in pain. Non-pharmacological interventions are important to use as an alternative to pharmacological pain relief because it is safer, cost-effective, and kid-friendly. Non-pharmacological interventions can create a positive hospital experience for both the pediatric patient and the family. The family and patient can carry on this positive experience with and seek medical care in the future with no hesitation. A systematic review of the literature was done using CINAHL to identify effective non-pharmacological pain relief interventions for pediatrics. Criteria for inclusion in this study were: peer reviewed articles, full text, English, and the journal subsets: nursing/core nursing. The results of the studies demonstrated that distraction interventions which stimulated the auditory and visual sense were the most effective in relieving pediatric pain. These included play, dancing, music, animated cartoons, and blowing bubbles. Parental involvement in these non-pharmacological interventions was also effective. Ineffective non-pharmacological interventions were those that stimulated the olfactory sense. Studies that compared non-pharmacological interventions to pharmacological pain management determined that they were equally as effective. Non-pharmacological pain relief interventions for pediatric patients can provide both short-term and long-term benefits. Providing education to registered nurses on what non-pharmacological pain relief intervention are effective can decrease the use of drugs for pain management.
    • The Effects Of A Safe Sleep Environment And The Reduction Of SIDS

      Moske-Weber, Charlene; Sarwar, Sonia (2019-05-01)
      This research addresses the prevalence of the phenomenon Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). Not much is known about the pathophysiology of SIDS, but steps can be taken to help decrease the risk of the disease, yet, it still prevails. The aim of this research will be to look closer into the risk factors for SIDS and its prevalence since the creation of the 1994 public health initiative, the 'Back to Sleep Campaign'. There are many complexities to its prevalence including but not limited to race, culture, education level, income, individual nursing practices, and lack of SIDS policies in hospitals. This research will look closely into these different risk factors and what can be done from a nurse’s stand point. SIDS risk reduction is important to nursing because its reduction is primarily education based. At risk populations are not receiving the proper education on SIDS and its risk reduction. The lack of nursing education with the combination of other risk factors mentioned before creates a complex situation to which a solution is necessary. The research for this paper will be gathered through a systematic review of literature. All articles will be gathered using the nursing database Medline Plus and will include qualitative and quantitative research articles published between 2010-2018. All articles used for this paper will be in English and limited to the age group 'infant, newborn: birth-1 month'.
    • Nonpharmacologic Interventions For Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome: A Systematic Review Of The Literature

      Orelup-Fitzgerald, Courtney; Scanlan, Kathleen (2019-05-01)
      The incidence of Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS) is increasing due to the current opioid epidemic. The foundation of NAS treatment has been pharmacotherapy but nonpharmacologic interventions are increasingly used to alleviate symptoms, reduce the amount of pharmacotherapy needed, and decrease the hospital length of stay (LOS). A systematic review of the literature was performed to identify nonpharmacologic interventions (NPI) that effectively improve NAS treatment outcomes and to identify gaps in current knowledge about NPI. Eight NPI were used as key words in literature searches: infant massage, parental presence, breastfeeding, Reiki, vibrotactile stimulation, acupuncture, non-nutritive sucking, and auditory stimulation. Results found nine studies that met the inclusion criteria: one study investigating the effect of infant massage, three studies on outcomes of parental presence, two studies on the effects of breastfeeding, one study on outcomes of Reiki, one study on vibrotactile stimulation, and one study on laser acupuncture. No studies assessed non-nutritive sucking or auditory stimulation interventions. NPI found to be effective in reducing NAS symptoms were infant massage (one study), parental presence (one study), and breastfeeding (one study). Decreased LOS was associated with parental presence (three studies), breast feeding (one study), and laser acupuncture (one study). Laser acupuncture also reduced the length of time the infant required medication (one study). Parental presence and breastfeeding each had one study where decreased amounts of medication were needed. Reiki and vibrotactile stimulation were not found to be effective interventions. A gap identified is the scarcity of research on the effectiveness of NPI.
    • Literature Review of Kennedy Terminal Ulcers: Identification, Diagnosis, Nursing Goals, and Interventions

      Hills, Donna; Vera, Rachel (2014-05-17)
      Although not greatly researched, the paucity of available literature theorizes that Kennedy Terminal Ulcers (KTUs) are clinical indications of skin failure. Through a review of the literature, the topics of: (1) methods of KTU identification, (2) how to make a proper nursing diagnosis, and (3) suggested nursing interventions will be discussed. Included in this literature review are anecdotal articles written by experienced healthcare professionals working in the hospice and palliative care fields. Case studies which focus on the development and treatment of KTUs incurred by end-of-life patients receiving hospice or palliative care services are also presented. The available literature corroborates that there are five characteristic wound criteria that serve to identify and diagnose KTUs. Though clinical professionals have different approaches on how to treat KTUs, the current literature concurs that nursing interventions should include: adequate pain control, hemorrhage prophylaxis, effective wound dressings, exudate management, infection prophylaxis, effective debridement methods, and odor control. Limitations encountered by the clinicians studying the development and treatment of KTUs include ethical dilemmas (i.e. inducing patient fatigue, inflicting emotional distress, or occupying the patient's valuable time as they approach end of life) and limited awareness of the existence of KTUs. Further research is needed to raise awareness of the existence of KTUs and how they are indicative of skin failure, for they must be identified, diagnosed, and treated accordingly so nurses are able to better advocate for the patient and ensure quality comfort care is provided as the patient approaches end of life.
    • Nurse To Patient Ratios: Government Mandated Or Evidence Based?

      Ebersole, Nancy; Robitaille, Jessica (2019-05-01)
      Nurse to patient ratios are currently controversial in health care. The central issue is what is a safe limit to the number of patients for whom an RN is responsible in the acute care setting? Some states require a committee at each facility to determine ratios whereas in other states, the legislature has established what the ratio must be. A systematic review of the literature was conducted using CINAHL to identify the major factors being used to determine a safe nurse to patient ratio. Criteria for inclusion in this study were (a) published between 2013 and September 2018; (b) peer reviewed; (c) published in English and (d) had at least one nurse as an author. A combination of the following keywords were nurse to patient ratios, safety, patient outcomes and quality of care. Thirteen studies qualified for inclusion in this systematic review. Five major factors identified as determining nurse to patient ratios are the educational levels of the nursing staff, patient acuity, patient outcomes, cost and the staffing method of the institution based upon cost/budget, nurse to patient ratio or patient acuity. The staffing method chosen is a decision between administrators and the nursing leadership. Cost is more heavily weighted by administrators than by the nursing leadership. These five factors are not constants and the dynamic environment of acute care nursing does not lend itself to staffing that does not consider these factors. Government mandated nurse to patient staffing ratios cannot provide the work environment that provides for the nursing needs of today’s patient populations.