• The Learning Needs of Newly Licensed Registered Nurses

      Fraley, Hannah; Goodwin, Paige Allison (2016-05-01)
      Nurses are on the frontline of healthcare delivery. The learning needs of newly licensed registered nurses are poorly understood. The aim of this study is to identify the specific learning needs of these newly licensed nurses so that they are able to confidently provide excellent care to culturally, ethnically, and racially diverse patients. A qualitative approach was used to complete this study. Convenience sampling was used to recruit ten newly licensed registered nurses who were interviewed by phone. The interviews were transcribed. Questions targeted working nurses experiences with nursing skills, interdisciplinary interactions, and documentation. Data was analyzed and coded for the identification of themes. Gaps in the literature exist regarding the specific learning needs of newly licensed registered nurses. Understanding their learning needs can provide insight into how to better transition student nurses to registered nurses so that they are able to adequately and safely take care of a diverse patient population and work successfully as new nurses.
    • The Benefits of Cardiac Rehabilitation for Post-Myocardial Infarction Patients

      Fraley, Hannah; Dahlberg, Jenny Kathryn (2016-05-01)
      Myocardial infarction is one of the most significant causes of death worldwide. Factors leading to a patient's risk of having a myocardial infarction are obesity, smoking, high cholesterol, hypertension, and a sedentary lifestyle. If patients knew of these risks, the likelihood of a myocardial infarction occurring could decrease. Because of a lack of information about the topic, many patients unfortunately experience a myocardial infarction before it is preventable. Lack of knowledge about how serious the disease is and treatment is also a reason for not going through with cardiac rehabilitation. People around the world need to be educated about myocardial infarction risks and the positive outcomes of attending cardiac rehabilitation. The aim of this study is to improve the quality of life of myocardial infarction patients by determining the long-term benefits of going through with cardiac rehabilitation. A review of the literature was conducted. CINAHL was used to search articles pertaining to the research topic. Results include the following: a lack of cardiac knowledge led to patients' unawareness of the need for attending cardiac rehabilitation; patients improved both physically and psychologically after attending rehabilitation; individualized education has been the most effective for myocardial infarction patients. Myocardial infarction can potentially be prevented through education of cardiac patients on the benefits and importance of cardiac rehabilitation. Results from this study have implications for helping to decrease morbidity and mortality among this high-risk population.
    • Factors Affecting the Quality of Life of Residents in Nursing Homes: Knowledge and Strategies for the Novice Nurse

      Leger, Robin; Angel, Katelin N (2016-05-01)
      Background and Significance: Quality of Life (QOL) is a major focus of practice in all areas of nursing, including promoting QOL for the elderly. New graduate Registered Nurses (RNs) have the option of working in a nursing home for their first career opportunity. The significant increase in the Baby Boomer population (nearly tripling between 1980-2030) will cause an influx of nursing home residents as they require nursing home services. Review of the Literature: Quality of Life (QOL) is important to providing quality, holistic care. Many factors encompass QOL. It is necessary for the new graduate RN to learn about interventions that positively impact nursing home residents' QOL. The literature review speaks only about first-hand studies focusing on nursing home residents' own interpretations of QOL factors. Several QOL domains were identified including promoting comfort, meaningful relationships, and maintaining autonomy and dignity. Undergraduate nursing education and new graduate orientation programs offer little information on the nurse's role in promoting QOL in the elderly. Implications for Novice Nurse Education: A table was adapted to show the QOL domains for the Elderly and possible RN Interventions to positively impact nursing home residents QOL. Provided with education focused on competencies for promoting QOL in the elderly, the new graduate RN will be able to use the interventions presented in the table to realize ways to positively impact QOL of nursing home residents during their first nursing experience as a novice nurse.
    • Assessing the Nutritional Health of College Students: An Ethnographic Approach

      Hills, Donna; Forina, Nicole Marie (2016-05-01)
      The culture of college students does not appear to give adequate attention to nutritional health. The purpose of this study seeks to explore whether college students are at risk for imbalanced nutrition. Among the studies reviewed, samples suggest that college students are at risk for imbalanced nutrition due to their financial instability, lack of nutritional knowledge, and inability to obtain healthy foods. The results of this systematic review of the literature suggest that implementations of nutritional education may reduce those risks.
    • Risks and Benefits of Self-Diagnosis Using the Internet

      Fraley, Hannah; Gass, Meghan Alesia (2016-05-01)
      As technology use increases, self-diagnosis using a symptom checker on the World Wide Web has become a topic of discussion in the health field. Given that many in the United States continue without access to medical care, it is becoming common practice for patients to self-diagnose using information sought on the internet. Health literacy of internet health information is a concern, especially among vulnerable populations, such as immigrants and those without access to health insurance. The aim of this study is to understand the phenomenon of self-diagnosis using the internet as a source of health information among a convenience sample of Salem State University students (N= 150). A survey instrument was used to examine the following: perception of accurate health information sought throughout the internet; follow-up with primary physicians, how much trust is placed in internet self-diagnosis, and how often participants use the internet to self-diagnose. Data was analyzed using thematic coding methods. The internet provides us with access to information, yet among those seeking health-related information, there is a concern that critical health information can either be misinterpreted, unreliable or both. Self-diagnosis using the internet is a particular concern if patients are using the internet in the place of a physician. Results from this study can inform healthcare professionals about college faculty, staff and student perceptions regarding use of the internet to self-diagnose prior to seeing a primary physician, as well as inform future study of this phenomenon.
    • Education Needs of Adults Living with Sickle Cell Disease in the U.S. and Jamaica

      Leger, Robin; Jordan, Kyle (2016-05-01)
      Purpose: To identify psychosocial and physiological components of sickle cell disease (SCD) health promotion to be included in patient and family education materials provided to an adult living with SCD for the promotion of wellness and reduction in complications of the disease. Background and significance: SCD occurs in approximately one in five hundred Jamaican born people and about 0.49 out of 1000 in America and results in intense pain episodes, and multi­organ failure (Knight-Madden, 2011). The role of the nurse and other healthcare providers as well as community based organizations in patient education is critical for promotion of quality of life. Tannahill (2009) argues that "fostering of empowering attributes such as resilience, self­esteem, confidence and lifeskills" also falls under the realm of education. Methods: A combination of telephone and written questionnaires were completed by nurse experts caring for patients with SCD in the U.S. and Jamaica, as well as executive board members of community based organizations for the support of community members living with SCD and their families. Discussion: There is a consensus that individuals with SCD are not adequately educated about the condition and its implications. Respondents recommended that those living with SCD be taught about basic physiology of the disease, family planning, early signs of complications, and exacerbating factors. Furthermore, each respondent explored barriers to effective educational interventions as well as methods of enhancing the quality and effectiveness of these interactions. This information can be used to develop effective educational materials for improving health outcomes.
    • Health Benefits Of Breastfeeding For Infants, Leading To Developmental Differences Between Breast-fed And Formula-fed Infants

      Burnett, Paula; Holloway, Heidi (2017-03-01)
      This systematic literature review of health benefits of breastfeeding for infants serves to educate mothers about any potential developmental differences between breast-fed and formula-fed infants. Many factors go into a mother’s decision regarding feeding methods, but there may be gaps in knowledge that are important and significant between feeding methods. Breastfeeding vs. formula feeding has become a controversial social issue in our society. Other literature reviews as well as qualitative and quantitative studies were reviewed in order to clarify which method is better, specifically in terms of infant development and why. Analysis and review of data from these studies may clarify the answer to this question and may support the hypothesis that breastfeeding is more beneficial developmentally for infants than formula feeding. From this review, it can be concluded that the differences in development between breastfed and formula-fed infants are not significant, but there appear to be more benefits and advancements in infants who were breastfed, even for short periods. In yielding these results, it is possible that more mothers will choose breastfeeding and more healthcare providers, particularly nurses, will better educate about the differences and benefits of both methods. This may lead to healthier infant development in the future.
    • Vaccines And The Evolution Of Society's Attitudes Toward Them: Implications For Future Nursing Practice

      Campbell, Charlene; Nowka, Scott; Shutt, Briana (2017-04-01)
      The various controversies surrounding vaccines are a pertinent topic in our society today and have increased fear related to immunization. Despite advances in medicine and the development of life-saving vaccines, diseases that were thought to be long gone have crept back into our society and become a public health concern once again. As the anti-vaccination movement gains momentum and parents choose not to vaccinate their children, there are increasing numbers of reported cases of once-eradicated diseases like Pertussis and Measles. A systematic literature review was done to explore immunizations and the evolution of their impact on society as well as to identify vaccine-related fears and their validity. Using Nola Pender’s Health Promotion Model as a theoretical framework, the goal of this review was to discuss implications for future nursing practice and to identify possible interventions for decreasing immunization fears.
    • The Effects Of Maternal Substance Use On Gestational Development And Neonates

      Burnett, Paula; Nowka, Scott; Fraley, Hannah; McElligott, Kelly (2017-04-23)
      This paper will focus on the effects of maternal substance use on the gestational development of neonates. The research for this paper will be gathered through a systematic review of the literature, which will include both quantitative and qualitative peer-reviewed articles published within the last six years. The articles will be gathered using databases including CINAHL and EBSCO. The research will include many substances that can have an effect on gestational development including alcohol, cannabis, amphetamines and opioids. The articles will not be limited to a specific maternal age range or ethnic or racial background, but rather all of the articles will include women who used substances at any point during their pregnancies. The demographics of the women and their socioeconomic status will be taken into consideration when analyzing the outcomes of the fetuses. For the purposes of this article, there will be a zero tolerance of substance use allowed during pregnancy and any use above zero would be considered abuse. The research will look into the roles of the women, their existing families and the physicians. The research will also explore the relationship between previous substance use and use during pregnancy. Some current research supports that there is a definite risk in healthy development of a fetus when substance use occurs during pregnancy. There are many outside factors, such as marital status, socioeconomic status and social class, that play a role in the resources available as well as the treatment provided to these women and fetuses. The goal of this study is to spread awareness of the effects of substance use during pregnancy and to help not only health care providers, but also women become more educated in the area, and therefore make more knowledgeable choices.
    • Nursing Care Considerations Among Maternity Patients Who Have Undergone Female Genital Mutilation/ Female Circumcision

      Delis, Pamela; Coreas, Iliana (2018-01-01)
      Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) is defined as “procedures that intentionally alter and cause injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons” by the World Health Organization (2018). FGM is a complicated subject matter to explore, not only because of what it entails, but also due to the identified gap in research about the proper care for these women here in the US. FGM can be very traumatizing and can affect so many aspects of these women's lives. The alteration and injury to the female's genital organs complicate and change the normal care plans for a pregnant patient that has undergone FGM. According to UNICEF, “there are approximately three million women and girls who have undergone FGC (Female Genital Circumcision) living in the United States” (Little, 2015). This number was estimated 5 years ago, and due to recent immigration patterns it is likely that this number will continue to rise. The increasing number of girls and women who have undergone FGM that live here in the US and the limited amount of identified research on this subject supports the need for this inquiry. A review of the literature was conducted using the Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) database and PubMed for years 2012-2018. A review of eight identified articles substantiate that significant risks and complications exist for women who have undergone female genital mutilation. The obstetrical complications of FGM include hemorrhage, injuries due to tearing and episiotomies, extended hospital stays, and emotional and cultural insensitivity experienced by patients. A gap in research exists related to nursing care considerations for this population. Research suggests that education about this topic and becoming culturally sensitive can help nurses provide appropriate care. There are also a number of obstetrical procedures that can lower the complications that FGM may cause during labor/birth. Further research should focus on nursing implications and interventions for the safe and appropriate care for these women.
    • Current Range Of Treatments And Therapies In Children And Adolescents Diagnosed With ADHD; A Systematic Review Of The Literature

      Campbell, Charlene; MacLeod, Cameron (2018-01-01)
      Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a disorder that affects many children and adolescents in the United States. ADHD is associated with inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity that usually starts during childhood and can last throughout life. The objective was to compile and synthesize the data on the many treatments available and gain insight from the results. This review of the literature examines research studies pertaining to the different therapies and the effects on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder with a focus on children and adolescents. It is the hope that in looking at a broad range of therapies we can work towards a future goal of better individualized treatment outcomes without a major reliance on pharmaceuticals.
    • The Self-Reported Atitudes And Awareness Of Nurse Practitioners Towards Music Therapy

      Moske-Weber, Charlene; Nowka, Scott; Coles, William (2018-01-01)
      This study takes the anonymous report of nurse practitioners’ view of music therapy in adjunction with regular pharmacological care among Salem State nursing faculty who currently practice as a nurse practitioner. The study aims to gather awareness and attitudes of nurse practitioners toward using music therapy in their area of practice. There is a growing problem of prescription drug abuse that is sweeping the nation. One factor of this is the use of extremely strong and addictive pain medication used for overall healthy patients after postoperative surgery. Using music therapy in adjunction to pharmacological care helps patients deal with all the same problems of surgery like pain, anxiety, and worry while leaving out the harsh addictive qualities of only using pharmacologic medications. The study will involve an anonymous survey of questions addressing current practice habits of nurse practitioners among Salem State nursing faculty who are nurse practitioners, their level of awareness of music therapy, their personal attitudes towards music therapy as a complimentary alternative pain management approach. Additionally, I will seek to understand levels of attitudes towards music therapy in relationship to reported practice behavior.
    • Perceptions Of Senior Nursing Students Towards Interprofessional Collaboration Targeting Patient Care

      Moske-Weber, Charlene; Tsang, Joanna (2018-01-01)
      Interprofessional collaboration plays a significant role in the education of nursing students. In nursing school, students participate in a variety of clinical experiences that coincide with their theory classes. Clinical experiences also serve as a place for students to build their foundation on skills needed in the clinical field. Purpose: To investigate the means of interprofessional collaboration and the experiences of senior nursing students at Salem State University with interprofessional collaboration in the clinical setting. Methods: The study was conducted as a qualitative study amongst 178 senior nursing students in the Salem State Nursing Program. The ten-question survey is a modified version of the SPICE-R instrument, also known as the Students Perception of Physician-Pharmacist Interprofessional Clinical Education. In addition, an optional text box was added at the end of the survey for students to provide further comments about their clinical experiences. Results: Collected data was analyzed using SPSS. Of the possible 178 senior nursing students, 44 (25%) completed the survey. Seventy-five percent reported understanding what interprofessional collaboration. Of the 44 students, 52.3% strongly agree that working with another healthcare profession enhanced their education and 34.1% strongly agree they felt nursing students needed to more of a direct participant in interprofessional collaboration while learning to care for patients in clinical rotations. Of the 44 students, 40.9% agree clinical rotations were the ideal place within their respective curricula for health professional students to interact. Conclusion: Based on the feedback of the qualitative study, students also reported feeling satisfied with their clinical experiences in the past, in regards to their instructors and gaining clinical experience, especially an interest in preceptorship opportunities. With entry into professional nursing practice within the next year, senior nursing students also reported those with previous healthcare experience felt more involved with the interprofessional team than in clinical experiences. The results provided implications for nursing educators on understanding nursing students perceptions on interprofessional collaboration based on clinical experiences.
    • Daily Living in Young Adults with Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (EDS)

      Leger, Robin; Hollohan, Marjorie (2018-01-01)
      Background and Significance: Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (EDS) is a rare, genetic connective tissue disorder that effects the production of collagen in the body, resulting in chronic pain, hypermobility and the need for many medical interventions. There is often a delay in diagnosis into adolescence or young adult life due to variability in multi-organ symptoms and their severity leading to misdiagnosis and uncertainty. Connective tissue holds the whole body together and when the collagen in that tissue doesn’t work the way it is supposed to, it can make changes in the way people live their lives. Methods: A qualitative, phenomenological study was conducted to explore what changes this condition can make to a person’s life. 5 women aged 18-22 were interviewed in person or via video chat. These interviews were later transcribed and analyzed. Results: Themes that emerged from the data were pain limiting daily tasks, the invisibility of the disease, and uncertainty about future of the condition.
    • The Benefits Of Dance Therapy For Older Adults With Dementia: A Systematic Review Of The Literature

      Moske-Weber, Charlene; Flynn, Brianna (2018-01-01)
      This systematic review of the literature surrounding dance therapy for older adults with dementia serves to educate nurses working with the population of older adults with dementia about the associated benefits of dance therapy. There is a need for engaging interventions for older adults with dementia. Dance has been shown to increase feelings of wellbeing, alter behaviors, enhance memory and facilitate social interactions. To investigate whether dance interventions improve behaviors of adults suffering from dementia, research on this topic is necessary. A systematic review of English-language articles published between 1998 and 2016, focusing on the benefits of dance therapy with memory-impaired adults suffering from dementia, was conducted. Because of the limited number of sources, the search criteria included a seminal article published in 1998. Sixty-seven articles were assessed for eligibility through full review. For the purpose of this thesis, five articles met inclusion criteria. Upon review, the following information was found: dance encourages social interactions and physical exercise. Dance is an engaging activity for older adults with dementia, encouraging individuals to learn new behaviors, and improves implicit memory. Additionally, unlike other forms of exercise, dance promotes a strong connection between mind and body. Though the literature reflects remarkable consistency suggesting dance therapy is beneficial for older adults with dementia, future research exploring this area is important to nursing.
    • Undergraduate Nursing Students Attitudes Toward Physician Assisted Suicide

      Delis, Pamela; Lundblad, Kendyl (2018-01-01)
      Physician assisted suicide consists of a doctor providing a patient with the lethal means of a medication (usually the barbituate secobarbital) to administer themselves at their own will. Euthanasia is a slightly different form of physician assisted suicide, where the doctor takes an active role and administers the lethal dose of a medication (usually secobarbital) to the patient. As expected, this practice abounds with controversy. This research seeks to study baccalaureate student nurses’ opinions on physician assisted suicide. This research sought to understand if nursing students feel physician assisted suicide is ethical amongst certain situations, and whether or not they believe if it should be legalized in the United States. Using student nurses as the participants in this study seemed best because they most likely have, or will have, treated a critically or terminally ill patient. Nurses work the closest with these specific patients, and therefore their opinions on whether or not physician assisted suicide should be an option is extremely valuable. Survey methodology was used to conduct this research. The survey contained a few demographic questions and two scenarios for the students to state whether they agreed or not, and a space for their thoughts on the matter. Mostly all of the students, by the end of the survey, made it clear that they believe physician assisted suicide can and should be used within certain ethical situations.
    • Birthing Positions And Perineal Trauma: A Systematic Review Of The Literature

      Delis, Pamela; Newton, Emily (2018-01-01)
      Lacerations and episiotomies can cause discomfort and extreme pain to new mothers. This can affect their ability to care for their newborn. Research has recently delved into the topic of perineal trauma. There are several risk factors associated with perineal trauma during birth. The effect of different birthing positions is still unclear. The purpose of this study is to explore birthing positions and perineal outcomes. A systematic review of the literature is proposed of available scholarly, peer reviewed published studies between years 2012-2017. Findings from this study will help inform how birthing positions can reduce perineal trauma. Implications of this study can help inform nursing care practices while caring for women experience labor and birth.
    • Attitudes Surrounding Long-Acting Reversible Contraceptive Methods Among Female Undergraduate Nursing Students Over 18 Years Of Age At A Large New England University

      Moske-Weber, Charlene; Nearen, Nicole (2018-01-01)
      Background/Purpose: Long-Acting Reversible Contraceptive (LARC) methods are highly effective methods of birth control including intrauterine devices (IUD) and the implant. There is often a lower rate of usage with these methods due to factors such as high upfront cost, invasive insertion methods, and possible side effects. This research is aimed to understand some of the perceived and actual barriers for usage, as well as to identify any gaps in education regarding this method. Design and Methods: This project was conducted as a qualitative study with 114 total participants. Consent for the study will be implied by completing the survey. The survey will be distributed via the School of Nursing from Survey Monkey. The data was collected via a 10 question survey, which was distributed through the Salem State University School of nursing email server. Results: Respondents had a generalized understanding of long-acting reversible methods, while also having low levels of usage. The data supported that this population, which was predominantly 18-22 years old, had an adequate LARC understanding. However, 55% of women claimed current oral contraceptive use, and only 17% cited current LARC use, despite the high 88% education rate Implications: The study enables healthcare providers and health educators to assess the education needs and barriers that exist with LARC usage. An understanding of LARC methods will help to expand access and understanding of this method.
    • Nurses’ Role In Prevention Of Hospital Admissions Among Long-Term Care Patients: A Systematic Review Of The Literature

      Delis, Pamela; Nowka, Scott; Lampasona, Jessica (2018-01-01)
      The number of Americans in long-term care (LTC) facilities is growing rapidly. The average lifespan is increasing, and the baby boomer generation is aging. This puts stress on both LTC facilities as well as hospitals (McAndrew, Grabowski, Dangi, & Young, 2015). In order for the healthcare system to run efficiently, all healthcare providers need to be aware of this issue. Methods to prevent potentially avoidable hospitalizations (PAH) should be available for nurses. This systematic review of the literature discusses the current literature about possible prevention methods. This review includes articles that identify the major causes of PAH as well as articles that explore different ways to minimize them. Many LTC residents require care in a hospital setting from time to time, and some more frequently than others. The term “potentially avoidable hospitalization” is used to categorize a required hospitalization that could have been avoided (McAndrew et al., 2015). Whether from a fall, a medication error, an infectious process, or another avoidable cause, such hospitalizations have negative impacts on the patient and are a huge expense for healthcare (Walsh et al., 2012). Some LTC patients are admitted to the hospital repeatedly, and sometimes for the same problem. Proper planning and care from nurses and other healthcare providers can lower the number of PAH this population experiences. This article reviews tools and techniques available for nurses so they will be aware of such methods. Additional research, including more randomized controlled trials, are needed since this is a rising issue in healthcare and there is currently no golden standard for nursing practice in this area.
    • Nurses’ Perspectives On Spiritual Care And Its Connection To Healing

      Ebersole, Nancy; McNair, Therese (2018-01-01)
      A holistic centered approach to nursing emphasizes the importance of involving the individual’s psychological health, physical well-being and spirituality. Specifically, spiritual care is commonly overlooked by nurses during the care of their patients. Excluding a patient’s spirituality can impact their recovery and inhibit their return to full health. The purpose of this study is to identify nurses’ perceptions of spiritual care and its connection to healing. Based upon the HOPE and FICA spiritual assessment tools, a survey was sent to nursing faculty at a state university which asked them to reflect on their perceptions of spirituality and healing. The response rate was 38%. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were applied, making this a mixed study. Themes were identified through the application of thematic analysis. The most common theme was the perception that spiritual care is acknowledging and respecting a patient’s beliefs and religious practices when providing care. The next predominant themes were the need to work with the patient and/or their families to provide care in line with their beliefs and the importance of addressing the individual holistically. Results also revealed that while a majority of nurses practiced spiritual care and related it to healing, they did not inquire how they could meet their patients’ spiritual needs while providing care. A unifying definition of spiritual care among nurses was not identified. These findings show that nurses do not include patients and families in providing for their spiritual needs. As a result of this, patients are not receiving the personalized holistic care necessary for healing.