• Nonpharmacologic Interventions For Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome: A Systematic Review Of The Literature

      Orelup-Fitzgerald, Courtney; Scanlan, Kathleen (2019-05-01)
      The incidence of Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS) is increasing due to the current opioid epidemic. The foundation of NAS treatment has been pharmacotherapy but nonpharmacologic interventions are increasingly used to alleviate symptoms, reduce the amount of pharmacotherapy needed, and decrease the hospital length of stay (LOS). A systematic review of the literature was performed to identify nonpharmacologic interventions (NPI) that effectively improve NAS treatment outcomes and to identify gaps in current knowledge about NPI. Eight NPI were used as key words in literature searches: infant massage, parental presence, breastfeeding, Reiki, vibrotactile stimulation, acupuncture, non-nutritive sucking, and auditory stimulation. Results found nine studies that met the inclusion criteria: one study investigating the effect of infant massage, three studies on outcomes of parental presence, two studies on the effects of breastfeeding, one study on outcomes of Reiki, one study on vibrotactile stimulation, and one study on laser acupuncture. No studies assessed non-nutritive sucking or auditory stimulation interventions. NPI found to be effective in reducing NAS symptoms were infant massage (one study), parental presence (one study), and breastfeeding (one study). Decreased LOS was associated with parental presence (three studies), breast feeding (one study), and laser acupuncture (one study). Laser acupuncture also reduced the length of time the infant required medication (one study). Parental presence and breastfeeding each had one study where decreased amounts of medication were needed. Reiki and vibrotactile stimulation were not found to be effective interventions. A gap identified is the scarcity of research on the effectiveness of NPI.
    • Nurse To Patient Ratios: Government Mandated Or Evidence Based?

      Ebersole, Nancy; Robitaille, Jessica (2019-05-01)
      Nurse to patient ratios are currently controversial in health care. The central issue is what is a safe limit to the number of patients for whom an RN is responsible in the acute care setting? Some states require a committee at each facility to determine ratios whereas in other states, the legislature has established what the ratio must be. A systematic review of the literature was conducted using CINAHL to identify the major factors being used to determine a safe nurse to patient ratio. Criteria for inclusion in this study were (a) published between 2013 and September 2018; (b) peer reviewed; (c) published in English and (d) had at least one nurse as an author. A combination of the following keywords were nurse to patient ratios, safety, patient outcomes and quality of care. Thirteen studies qualified for inclusion in this systematic review. Five major factors identified as determining nurse to patient ratios are the educational levels of the nursing staff, patient acuity, patient outcomes, cost and the staffing method of the institution based upon cost/budget, nurse to patient ratio or patient acuity. The staffing method chosen is a decision between administrators and the nursing leadership. Cost is more heavily weighted by administrators than by the nursing leadership. These five factors are not constants and the dynamic environment of acute care nursing does not lend itself to staffing that does not consider these factors. Government mandated nurse to patient staffing ratios cannot provide the work environment that provides for the nursing needs of today’s patient populations.
    • The Nurse's Role During The Childbirth Experience Of First-Time Fathers

      Moske-Weber, Charlene; Libby, Sara (2019-05-01)
      The experience of first-time fathers during childbirth has changed dramatically over the last several decades. Recent studies have demonstrated that though the support person plays a major role in childbirth, they are often overlooked. Some first-time fathers may feel like they did not have many choices or a voice in the childbirth experience. This study analyzed the experiences of seven first-time fathers through personal interviews and is aimed at helping nurses adapt their care to better include fathers. These interviews identified a need for improved assessment of first-time fathers desired involvement in childbirth and ultimately leading to the development of an efficient tool to fill this gap.
    • The Nurses' Role Supporting Quality of Life in School-Aged Children (ages 7-17) with Brain Tumors; Role in Clinic and Support Group

      Leger, Robin; Dunnebier, Nichole (2014-05-17)
      Background: The United States is home to approximately 13,000 Pediatric Nurse Practitioners (PNP), professionals whom are deemed capable of providing care to the growing number of children with chronic illnesses (Dunham, Freed, Lamard, Loveland-Cherry, Martyn, 2010). Some 2,000 children are affected by brain tumors each year and are often cared for by a PNP. They can suffer from affected Health Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) factors or sequela that the PNP is responsible for addressing. Objective: To gain insight into the PNP’s role in caring for the pediatric patient with a brain tumor and observe how she addressed HRQOL factors and long-term sequela the child is faced with. Methods: An observational descriptive study was conducted. A convenience sample of six children undergoing treatment in clinic and nine children in remission at a support group were observed, specifically appraising the PNP’s role in caring for them. Results: Children seen in both the clinic and the support group experience HRQOL factors, and the PNP addressed them in several different ways. She assessed the children’s signs and symptoms, made plans of care, identified referrals needed, and made them feel as though they had were a part of a group with hope for the future. Conclusion: The PNP plays a pivotal role in caring for children with brain tumors through continuity of care; they are one of the first people to meet the patient and family members, and are responsible to ensure their comfort. PNPs also play the vital role of assessing the patient and identifying the child and family needs, any abnormalities, as well as addressing sequela. Finally, in support group, the PNP is a facilitator for the children’s peer support, reflection on their experiences and promotes hope for their future.
    • Nurses’ Perspectives On Spiritual Care And Its Connection To Healing

      Ebersole, Nancy; McNair, Therese (2018-01-01)
      A holistic centered approach to nursing emphasizes the importance of involving the individual’s psychological health, physical well-being and spirituality. Specifically, spiritual care is commonly overlooked by nurses during the care of their patients. Excluding a patient’s spirituality can impact their recovery and inhibit their return to full health. The purpose of this study is to identify nurses’ perceptions of spiritual care and its connection to healing. Based upon the HOPE and FICA spiritual assessment tools, a survey was sent to nursing faculty at a state university which asked them to reflect on their perceptions of spirituality and healing. The response rate was 38%. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were applied, making this a mixed study. Themes were identified through the application of thematic analysis. The most common theme was the perception that spiritual care is acknowledging and respecting a patient’s beliefs and religious practices when providing care. The next predominant themes were the need to work with the patient and/or their families to provide care in line with their beliefs and the importance of addressing the individual holistically. Results also revealed that while a majority of nurses practiced spiritual care and related it to healing, they did not inquire how they could meet their patients’ spiritual needs while providing care. A unifying definition of spiritual care among nurses was not identified. These findings show that nurses do not include patients and families in providing for their spiritual needs. As a result of this, patients are not receiving the personalized holistic care necessary for healing.
    • Nurses’ Role In Prevention Of Hospital Admissions Among Long-Term Care Patients: A Systematic Review Of The Literature

      Delis, Pamela; Nowka, Scott; Lampasona, Jessica (2018-01-01)
      The number of Americans in long-term care (LTC) facilities is growing rapidly. The average lifespan is increasing, and the baby boomer generation is aging. This puts stress on both LTC facilities as well as hospitals (McAndrew, Grabowski, Dangi, & Young, 2015). In order for the healthcare system to run efficiently, all healthcare providers need to be aware of this issue. Methods to prevent potentially avoidable hospitalizations (PAH) should be available for nurses. This systematic review of the literature discusses the current literature about possible prevention methods. This review includes articles that identify the major causes of PAH as well as articles that explore different ways to minimize them. Many LTC residents require care in a hospital setting from time to time, and some more frequently than others. The term “potentially avoidable hospitalization” is used to categorize a required hospitalization that could have been avoided (McAndrew et al., 2015). Whether from a fall, a medication error, an infectious process, or another avoidable cause, such hospitalizations have negative impacts on the patient and are a huge expense for healthcare (Walsh et al., 2012). Some LTC patients are admitted to the hospital repeatedly, and sometimes for the same problem. Proper planning and care from nurses and other healthcare providers can lower the number of PAH this population experiences. This article reviews tools and techniques available for nurses so they will be aware of such methods. Additional research, including more randomized controlled trials, are needed since this is a rising issue in healthcare and there is currently no golden standard for nursing practice in this area.
    • Nursing Burnout: Evaluation Of Self-Care And Nursing Burnout In A Critical Care Setting

      Frost, Marion; Aster, Seth (2019-05-01)
      Background/Purpose: Nursing burnout is a pressing issue in healthcare, and it is often overlooked. Many factors can affect your risk for nursing burnout. Some of these factors include age, length of time working as a nurse, number of children at home, place of employment, etc. The purpose of this study is to evaluate how the self-care and health management of critical care nurses affects their risk for nursing burnout. Design/Method: A non-interventional survey study was conducted in the Surgical Intensive Care Unit at a Level 2 Trauma Center north of Boston, MA. 31 nurses completed and handed back two surveys that were administered. The Professional Quality of Life (ProQOL) Version 5 survey was one of the surveys that was administered. The other survey was the Self-Care and Lifestyle Inventory. By cross-analyzing the results, the relationship between nursing burnout risk and self-care was evaluated. Results: The data was analyzed using SPSS Version 23. The results of the study were quite conclusive. The participants scores for the Self-Care and Lifestyle Inventory are significantly negatively correlated to their scores for Nursing Burnout (r = -.540). This proves the hypothesis that self-care is directly related to nursing burnout. Nursing Implications: Because nursing burnout affects patient care, the results of this study can be used in other critical care units where staff suffer from high levels of nursing burnout. Creating a healthy working environment should be made a priority to decrease stress levels of critical care nurses.
    • Nursing Care Considerations Among Maternity Patients Who Have Undergone Female Genital Mutilation/ Female Circumcision

      Delis, Pamela; Coreas, Iliana (2018-01-01)
      Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) is defined as “procedures that intentionally alter and cause injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons” by the World Health Organization (2018). FGM is a complicated subject matter to explore, not only because of what it entails, but also due to the identified gap in research about the proper care for these women here in the US. FGM can be very traumatizing and can affect so many aspects of these women's lives. The alteration and injury to the female's genital organs complicate and change the normal care plans for a pregnant patient that has undergone FGM. According to UNICEF, “there are approximately three million women and girls who have undergone FGC (Female Genital Circumcision) living in the United States” (Little, 2015). This number was estimated 5 years ago, and due to recent immigration patterns it is likely that this number will continue to rise. The increasing number of girls and women who have undergone FGM that live here in the US and the limited amount of identified research on this subject supports the need for this inquiry. A review of the literature was conducted using the Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) database and PubMed for years 2012-2018. A review of eight identified articles substantiate that significant risks and complications exist for women who have undergone female genital mutilation. The obstetrical complications of FGM include hemorrhage, injuries due to tearing and episiotomies, extended hospital stays, and emotional and cultural insensitivity experienced by patients. A gap in research exists related to nursing care considerations for this population. Research suggests that education about this topic and becoming culturally sensitive can help nurses provide appropriate care. There are also a number of obstetrical procedures that can lower the complications that FGM may cause during labor/birth. Further research should focus on nursing implications and interventions for the safe and appropriate care for these women.
    • Nursing Students’ versus Non-nursing Students’ Understanding of Oral Contraceptives

      Fraley, Hannah; Quirk, Victoria Josephine (2016-05-01)
      BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Many people are aware that oral contraceptives (OCs) are used to correct unwanted side effects from a woman's menstrual cycle or used to prevent an unwanted pregnancy from occurring, or used in combination. However, many students are unaware of side effects and risks that OCs can have upon each individual consumer. The purpose of this study was to examine undergraduate nursing students' understanding of OCs and compare it to undergraduate non-nursing students' understanding ofOCs to see if the side effects of OCs are truly understood. DESIGN AND METHODS: A quantitative study was conducted among undergraduate students attending Salem State University, located in Salem, Massachusetts. The survey was accessible from early November 2015 until December 2015. An online survey database was utilized to collect responses electronically and was sent to both nursing and non-nursing students who attended Salem State University during that time frame. RESULTS: Regardless of the major or class standing, most participants had a general understanding of the risks and side effects that OCs can have. IMPLICATIONS: Healthcare providers should focus teaching on OCs towards helping consumers accurately understand the side effects and risks that are associated with this medication, along with deciphering the truth from various misconceptions.
    • Parents' Perception of Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) and Hope for Their Child Living with Plagiocephaly: A Case Series

      Leger, Robin; Durgin, Gabrielle (2014-05-17)
      Purpose: To examine Positional Plagiocephaly and its relationship to the parents’ perception of the quality of life (QOL) and hope for the future of their child. Study Design and Methods: For the purpose of this honors thesis, a descriptive case series with parent interviews of their experience with infants and toddlers with Positional Plagiocephaly was conducted. In addition, themes from parental postings from a web-based social network for parents of children treated for Positional Plagiocephaly were constructed. Results: A convenience sample of three cases with six parents and themes from the social network were obtained. Two of the case studies were family members and the third case study was a friend of a colleague. Posts made by parents from three pages on a social network were obtained. Consent was obtained prior to the start of the interviews. This project was accepted by the Institutional Review Board (IRB) at Salem State University. The student researcher also completed the Collaborative Institutional Training Initiative (human subject training). This research demonstrated that larger case series are needed to look at the long term effects of this diagnosis. Both qualitative and quantitative studies on the nurse’s role, health- related quality of life (HRQOL), and hope measures need to be conducted. This research may also help nurses and other medical personnel address issues that parents who have a child with Positional Plagiocephaly are concerned about.
    • Patients, Providers, And Perceptions: Achieving Quality Of Care When Goals Are Not Aligned

      Ebersole, Nancy; Smith, Catherine (2022-05-01)
      Despite asthma remaining one of the most common chronic pediatric conditions, patients are still constantly hospitalized due to poor adherence to the treatment plan. Patient-centered care requires professionals to understand what barriers affect controlled asthma during healthy childhood/adolescent development. This literature review consists of seven key articles from the CINAHL and PubMed databases with common themes identified (a) providers and patients have different goals of effective care; (b) nurses can help identify family roles to manage asthma care while building patient resilience and (c) identifying factors that decrease treatment compliance. These themes highlight the need for nurses to expand their role as medical caregivers and educators into a mediator between pediatric patients, their family members, and their providers. At the same time, natural family roles need to be respected and patients can care for themselves with little distractions from having a healthy childhood. This helps to improve the quality of self-care and decrease hospital readmissions in pediatric patients with asthma.
    • Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injuries: Challenges in Providing Effective Patient Care and Importance of Proper Family Support

      Ebersole, Nancy; Conners, Kaitlyn (2021-05-01)
      The human brain is one of the most important, yet least understood, organs in the human body. This functional unit innervates every aspect of human life and is ever changing from conception until full maturity around age 25. Considering this, it makes sense that pediatric traumatic brain injuries are so misunderstood. Attempting to diagnose and monitor a traumatic injury to a complex organ that is still growing and developing is challenging for clinicians. Proper interaction with these children and their families is vital to physical health and psychosocial development. Identifying current knowledge and disseminating it is crucial for planning interventions and promoting healthy outcomes. A review of the literature was done using the CINAHL database, and articles collected identify themes that are important and unique to caring for these patients. The themes are (a) impact of age at time of injury on post injury behavior; (b) importance of proper identification of TBI related behaviors and appropriate interventions; (c) relationship between severity of injury and post injury behaviors; (d) patient challenges with internalizing and externalizing problems; and (e) role of home environment on post injury behaviors and recovery process. When caring for this patient population, it is important for health care providers to not use a "one size fits all" approach, as each patient will have a different presentation and different needs based on the factors listed above. The themes identified here provide a point of reference for clinicians when planning care for children who have experienced a traumatic brain injury.
    • Perceptions Of Senior Nursing Students Towards Interprofessional Collaboration Targeting Patient Care

      Moske-Weber, Charlene; Tsang, Joanna (2018-01-01)
      Interprofessional collaboration plays a significant role in the education of nursing students. In nursing school, students participate in a variety of clinical experiences that coincide with their theory classes. Clinical experiences also serve as a place for students to build their foundation on skills needed in the clinical field. Purpose: To investigate the means of interprofessional collaboration and the experiences of senior nursing students at Salem State University with interprofessional collaboration in the clinical setting. Methods: The study was conducted as a qualitative study amongst 178 senior nursing students in the Salem State Nursing Program. The ten-question survey is a modified version of the SPICE-R instrument, also known as the Students Perception of Physician-Pharmacist Interprofessional Clinical Education. In addition, an optional text box was added at the end of the survey for students to provide further comments about their clinical experiences. Results: Collected data was analyzed using SPSS. Of the possible 178 senior nursing students, 44 (25%) completed the survey. Seventy-five percent reported understanding what interprofessional collaboration. Of the 44 students, 52.3% strongly agree that working with another healthcare profession enhanced their education and 34.1% strongly agree they felt nursing students needed to more of a direct participant in interprofessional collaboration while learning to care for patients in clinical rotations. Of the 44 students, 40.9% agree clinical rotations were the ideal place within their respective curricula for health professional students to interact. Conclusion: Based on the feedback of the qualitative study, students also reported feeling satisfied with their clinical experiences in the past, in regards to their instructors and gaining clinical experience, especially an interest in preceptorship opportunities. With entry into professional nursing practice within the next year, senior nursing students also reported those with previous healthcare experience felt more involved with the interprofessional team than in clinical experiences. The results provided implications for nursing educators on understanding nursing students perceptions on interprofessional collaboration based on clinical experiences.
    • Period Poverty: How Access To Feminine Hygiene Products Affects The Psychosocial Development Of Young Women?

      Ebersole, Nancy; Duvivier, Cephora (2022-05-01)
      The purpose of this study was to assess the menstrual hygiene needs of adolescent girls and explore factors influencing poor access to products and related school absences amongst adolescent girls. Many young women cannot afford menstrual health products to meet their monthly needs, and this may impact their well-being and school performance. Period poverty is a subset of the broader issue of hygiene insecurity. As a result of hygiene insecurity, women often lack health, self-esteem, and dignity due to limited access to hygiene products such as sanitary towels or pads, tampons, soap, and clean underwear. A systematic review of the literature was done in the CINAHL Plus database, PubMed, and Google Scholar databases. The themes identified across the studies are (a) poor access to menstrual products, (b) school environment does not provide for the needs of young women and (c) inadequate education on menstrual health in schools. The results indicate there is an unmet need for affordable products and teaching that targets both the knowledge and management of menstruation. Inadequate menstruation hygiene has been shown to be linked to school absenteeism. In schools, there is a significant need for menstrual hygiene products, as well as regular use of school resources to get them. With additional research to help inform how period poverty impacts adolescent girls and young women, there is tremendous opportunity to help address this critical, yet under-addressed issue. Menstruation is an ongoing biological process that affects women and adolescent girls. Menstruating women, on average, use over 9,000 sanitary items throughout their lifetime, which adds up rapidly. Adolescent girls face struggles to manage their menstrual cycles and those in lower socioeconomic classes often lack access to the products they need. Despite how essential menstrual products are, there are vast number of adolescent girls who are unable to afford or acquire these necessities. This lack of access to period products is often referred to as, ‘period poverty’. This can result in delayed challenges in achieving psychosocial growth in adolescent girls, as evidenced by not attending school Lack of access to products amongst adolescent girls causes inhibitions in psychosocial settings and causes girls to not interact with others freely. Ultimately this can limit a girl’s potential and opportunities later in life. 1 in 5 girls in the United States reported having missed school because they did not have access to menstrual products. Without proper menstrual hygiene management (MHM), a girl’s attendance at school is reported to decline or cease altogether. Providing adequate resources to meet women's and girls' menstrual hygiene needs may have an impact on female school attendance rates and expanding women's education is critical in achieving one’s life goals.
    • Prenatal Counseling and Marijuana; Professional Challenges to the Nurse-Patient Relationship

      Ebersole, Nancy; Nowka, Scott; Dunnigan, Shea (2020-05-01)
      Prenatal counseling is imperative to ensure a safe and healthy pregnancy. With the recent change in legal status regarding marijuana in the United States, challenges for counseling have arose. It is important that healthcare providers are screening women for marijuana use during their prenatal visits, in order to initiate the proper counseling needed for their patients. Considering that THC, the main component in marijuana, can enter the fetal brain, it is crucial for healthcare providers to educate pregnant women on the effects that it can cause to their child. A systematic review of the literature was done using CINAHL database to identify the needs of pregnant women and the challenges to healthcare providers pertaining to marijuana use. The results of the studies showed that there are barriers related to counseling—how counseling is initiated, the quality of information provided by the healthcare team, and the perception of counseling. Counseling is not always initiated by the provider, whether they feel the patient is not using or because they do not want to deal with the legal and ethical issues of the situation if they are using. The information provided by the healthcare team lacks detail and quality, due to limited amount of research on the topic. Healthcare providers admit that they do not know what to tell their patients about marijuana use during pregnancy. Counseling did differ depending on whether the patient disclosed current or past marijuana use, which is why women fear telling their healthcare providers. More research must be done regarding how marijuana may affect the fetus and newborn. This information needs to be provided to obstetric healthcare workers, so that they can pass it on to their patients.
    • Preparedness and Risk Factors of Compassion Fatigue in Undergraduate Nursing Students

      Leger, Robin; Homan, Sara Marie (2016-04-01)
      The incidence of compassion fatigue is increasing among healthcare workers especially those who do not know what compassion fatigue is and have not developed healthy ways to cope with compassion fatigue. Unfamiliarity with compassion fatigue stems back to nursing school. Research has been done on what compassion fatigue is, its causes and coping mechanisms but there is limited research as to how compassion fatigue effects students or whether or not nursing school prepares students on how to combat compassion fatigue in high stress or difficult situations. The intended purpose of this study is to evaluate the risk factors of compassion fatigue in undergraduate nursing students and their preparedness to deal with compassion fatigue as novice nurses. Methods: The study was set up as a quantitative study of freshman, sophomore, junior and senior undergraduate nursing students in the Salem State University Nursing Program. The ten-question survey contained questions related to demographics, risk factors for compassion fatigue and preparedness. Results: Data was analyzed using SPSS. Of the 607 possible BSN students, 105 (18%) BSN students completed the survey. 0% of students reported having no stress while 67.7% of students reported having an above average to extreme stress. 43.2% of BSN students reported frequently or constantly being preoccupied with the stressors of others. 73.3% of students reported that they had never heard of the term compassion fatigue. 96.2% of students reported that they do not frequently take time to wind down and reflect after a stressful situation. Conclusion: In conclusion, the research clearly demonstrates that students are in need of further education regarding the risk of compassion fatigue and how to better prepare themselves. The undergraduate nursing student's reported having several risk factors already in place including high stress and ineffective coping. They also reported being unprepared to deal with challenging situations involving patients.
    • Putting A Stop to Nursing Burnout Before It Starts

      Ebersole, Nancy; Aymat, Alicia (2020-05-01)
      Burnout is defined as physical, mental, and emotional exhaustion. Nursing burnout is frequently seen within this profession. Questions have arisen on whether or not nursing burnout formulates during the working phase or before while attending nursing school. If students present signs and symptoms of nursing burnout during nursing school and before entering the professional field, these factors may predispose these new graduates to experience burnout earlier in their professional careers than new graduates who did not experience this. A systematic review of the literature was conducted. A Boolean search was used with the keywords: nursing burnout, nursing students, new graduate nurses, and nursing school. Six articles met the criteria for inclusion in this systematic review of the literature. Two themes were identified: emotional responses and coping skills, and emotional responses and year of study. The strength of a student’s coping skills is a consistent theme in each of the articles studied. The stress is not felt equally however within each year of a 4-year program. First and fourth year students report significantly less stress than those in their second and third year. Emotional exhaustion during the second and third years creates difficulties as the student prepares to enter professional practice in the fourth year. A process to recognize factors in a student, which predisposes them to burnout once they enter professional practice, is needed. In doing so, recognizing emotional exhaustion early will help students to develop stronger coping skills and promote behaviors that will lower the risk of burnout.
    • Risks and Benefits of Self-Diagnosis Using the Internet

      Fraley, Hannah; Gass, Meghan Alesia (2016-05-01)
      As technology use increases, self-diagnosis using a symptom checker on the World Wide Web has become a topic of discussion in the health field. Given that many in the United States continue without access to medical care, it is becoming common practice for patients to self-diagnose using information sought on the internet. Health literacy of internet health information is a concern, especially among vulnerable populations, such as immigrants and those without access to health insurance. The aim of this study is to understand the phenomenon of self-diagnosis using the internet as a source of health information among a convenience sample of Salem State University students (N= 150). A survey instrument was used to examine the following: perception of accurate health information sought throughout the internet; follow-up with primary physicians, how much trust is placed in internet self-diagnosis, and how often participants use the internet to self-diagnose. Data was analyzed using thematic coding methods. The internet provides us with access to information, yet among those seeking health-related information, there is a concern that critical health information can either be misinterpreted, unreliable or both. Self-diagnosis using the internet is a particular concern if patients are using the internet in the place of a physician. Results from this study can inform healthcare professionals about college faculty, staff and student perceptions regarding use of the internet to self-diagnose prior to seeing a primary physician, as well as inform future study of this phenomenon.
    • The Self-Reported Atitudes And Awareness Of Nurse Practitioners Towards Music Therapy

      Moske-Weber, Charlene; Nowka, Scott; Coles, William (2018-01-01)
      This study takes the anonymous report of nurse practitioners’ view of music therapy in adjunction with regular pharmacological care among Salem State nursing faculty who currently practice as a nurse practitioner. The study aims to gather awareness and attitudes of nurse practitioners toward using music therapy in their area of practice. There is a growing problem of prescription drug abuse that is sweeping the nation. One factor of this is the use of extremely strong and addictive pain medication used for overall healthy patients after postoperative surgery. Using music therapy in adjunction to pharmacological care helps patients deal with all the same problems of surgery like pain, anxiety, and worry while leaving out the harsh addictive qualities of only using pharmacologic medications. The study will involve an anonymous survey of questions addressing current practice habits of nurse practitioners among Salem State nursing faculty who are nurse practitioners, their level of awareness of music therapy, their personal attitudes towards music therapy as a complimentary alternative pain management approach. Additionally, I will seek to understand levels of attitudes towards music therapy in relationship to reported practice behavior.
    • Sexually Transmitted Infections in the Elderly: Nursing Implications for Prevention and Education

      Leger, Robin; Winslow, Catherine (2014-05-17)
      This study will examine why the elderly population in the United States is at high risk for contracting and spreading sexually transmitted diseases. Through a review of literature, many different risk factors will be identified and discussed. The study will also include methods of prevention to protect this population. Education strategies will also be discussed, not only for the members of the elderly population, but for the health care professionals who treat them. By identifying risk factors, providing education, and learning about prevention, the rate sexually transmitted diseases are being spread will decrease among the elderly population.