• The Impact Of Disparate Treatment On Pregnancy Outcomes In Minority Women

      Ebersole, Nancy; Pueyo-Garcia, Claudia (2022-05-01)
      Pregnancy is one of the most vulnerable and important events in a woman’s life, however this experience can differ for minority women from disadvantaged backgrounds. The Center for Disease Control and Prevention reports that 700 women die each year in the US because of pregnancy or delivery complications while also reporting that Black women are three times more likely to die from pregnancy than white women. More than half of these deaths and near-deaths are the result of preventable causes, and a disproportionate number of the women suffering are Black women. A review of the literature was done using the CINAHL database, and the articles that were collected will be used to find common themes across multiple author’s findings that link directly to causative factors and their outcomes. The themes are (a) minority women experiencing lower-quality care; (b) minority women experiencing biases in communities; (c) minority women experiencing implicit bias within the health care delivery system; (d) minority women experiencing the effects of systemic oppression. Each of these elements have contributed to the rising prevalence of pregnancy-related morbidities and deaths. Nurses must advocate for high-quality, safe treatment and care for every patient to dismantle racial health disparities and decrease maternal morbidity and mortality rates. The desire to learn and to be aware of the variables influencing racial inequalities in pregnant minority women is the first step to improve health care standards and work to dismantle this growing racial health disparity.
    • Implementation Of Oral Care Guidelines To Reduce Incidences Of Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia: A Systematic Review Of The Literature

      Frost, Marion; Pechilis, Kelly (2019-05-01)
      Background/Purpose: Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia (VAP) is a disease process that can arise during the use of mechanical ventilation in the critical care setting. VAP can be prevented if adequate oral care practices are followed. The purpose of this study was to investigate how the implementation of oral care guidelines impact incidence rates of VAP in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and to determine specific oral care practices that are useful in the prevention of this disease process. Method: A systematic review of English-language literature was conducted of articles that were published after 2009. The CINAHL Plus Full Text database was used to determine suitable articles based on specific inclusion criteria. Results: Six articles were found to be relevant and were included in this systematic literature review. This systematic review of the literature investigated specific oral care practices that are recommended to prevent VAP. The American Association of Critical-Care Nurses (AACN) has oral care recommendations in place for nurses to follow however there have yet to be recommendations in place specific to patients undergoing mechanical ventilation. Additionally, this review concluded that facility implementation of oral care guidelines is found to increase nursing adherence to these recommendations. Conclusion: Implementation of oral care guidelines is encouraged to decrease incidences of VAP in the ICU. Interventions included in these protocols provide education and direction to guide nursing care and increase nursing compliance, resulting in decreased VAP incidences in the ICU. Further research is suggested to enhance evidence based nursing practices to determine oral care guidelines that are specific to the prevention of VAP in critical care settings.
    • Information Available to Patients Diagnosed with Dementia: Interviews With Caregivers and Their Experiences

      Fraley, Hannah; Williams, Leigh (2015-05-01)
      Purpose: Dementia is a prevalent problem for older adults and their families. Early intervention and a multidisciplinary approach for treatment have been linked to better quality of life. The primary objective of this study was to discover what information is available to patients with dementia upon diagnosis and how beneficial the information given is perceived by the primary caregivers. Secondary objectives included types of resources most utilized by the caregiver and how caregivers found out about such resources. Methods: A qualitative study design was employed using snowball sampling methods and semi-structured interviews among primary caregivers (n= 5) of patients with Alzheimer’s Disease (n= 3), Lewy Body Dementia (n= 1), and Dementia Unspecified (n= 1) respectively. Thematic coding methods were used to identify potential barriers to accessing timely information regarding disease prognosis and optimal resources. Results: Several themes emerged from caregiver interviews. Central themes found among the caregivers include: 1.) chronic grief 2.) chronic frustrations 3.) chronic guilt 4.) total responsibility of care. Several subthemes emerged that compound upon these caregiver experiences including provider related parries such as lack of quality information, and access barriers including difficulty finding community resources. Conclusion: Caregivers interviewed in this study perceive support from their health care team in general, yet have limited perceived support in navigating how to access community resources. Patients and their families need guidance and support from the health care team upon diagnosis, yet also need ongoing support and education while caring for a loved one with Dementia.
    • Knowledge of HIV screening in Women of Childbearing Age: 18-50

      Leger, Robin; Najjar, Alexandra (2015-05-01)
      Background and Significance: Today across the globe, children are still being born with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) contracted from their mothers. Although the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends that all women be screened for HIV during each pregnancy, women are still failing to meet this goal. Research shows that women who understand the benefits of HIV screening for their developing child in utero are more likely to receive an HIV screen during pregnancy. Furthermore, research has shown that women who perceive themselves as “low-risk” are less likely to receive and HIV screen prenatally. Methodology: The nursing student and faculty advisor composed a survey with questions on demographics, HIV transmission knowledge and a self-evaluation tool to assess women’s perception on their own knowledge of HIV transmission, screening, and benefits of screening. Results: Nearly 70% of women indicated of how much they themselves believed to known about HIV transmission with a range of scores from 27 to 100. Women’s responses to the VAS for knowledge of benefits of prenatal treatment for the developing fetus were much more discouraging than the previous VAS scale results. For this scale, there was a mean of only 34.1 with a range of 0-93. The standard deviation among responses was 27.1, meaning there was high variability among samples. Finally, the last VAS scale asked women to rate their knowledge of the fact that HIV transmission from mother to child can be prevented over 98% with the proper treatment. Women’s mean for this scale was only 44.7 with a range of 0-96 and the standard deviation among responses was 30.8, meaning there was also high variability among responses. Education level had absolutely no correlation to women’s knowledge of HIV transmission, screening, or treatment benefits during pregnancy. Of equal importance, results show that the majority of HIV transmission questions that were answered incorrectly were related to oral transmission. Implications: Education about HIV transmission and screening during pregnancy needs to be spread to women of all educational levels. Further research can focus on how best to educate women and how to promote prenatal HIV screening for all women during every pregnancy.
    • The Learning Needs of Newly Licensed Registered Nurses

      Fraley, Hannah; Goodwin, Paige Allison (2016-05-01)
      Nurses are on the frontline of healthcare delivery. The learning needs of newly licensed registered nurses are poorly understood. The aim of this study is to identify the specific learning needs of these newly licensed nurses so that they are able to confidently provide excellent care to culturally, ethnically, and racially diverse patients. A qualitative approach was used to complete this study. Convenience sampling was used to recruit ten newly licensed registered nurses who were interviewed by phone. The interviews were transcribed. Questions targeted working nurses experiences with nursing skills, interdisciplinary interactions, and documentation. Data was analyzed and coded for the identification of themes. Gaps in the literature exist regarding the specific learning needs of newly licensed registered nurses. Understanding their learning needs can provide insight into how to better transition student nurses to registered nurses so that they are able to adequately and safely take care of a diverse patient population and work successfully as new nurses.
    • Literature Review of Kennedy Terminal Ulcers: Identification, Diagnosis, Nursing Goals, and Interventions

      Hills, Donna; Vera, Rachel (2014-05-17)
      Although not greatly researched, the paucity of available literature theorizes that Kennedy Terminal Ulcers (KTUs) are clinical indications of skin failure. Through a review of the literature, the topics of: (1) methods of KTU identification, (2) how to make a proper nursing diagnosis, and (3) suggested nursing interventions will be discussed. Included in this literature review are anecdotal articles written by experienced healthcare professionals working in the hospice and palliative care fields. Case studies which focus on the development and treatment of KTUs incurred by end-of-life patients receiving hospice or palliative care services are also presented. The available literature corroborates that there are five characteristic wound criteria that serve to identify and diagnose KTUs. Though clinical professionals have different approaches on how to treat KTUs, the current literature concurs that nursing interventions should include: adequate pain control, hemorrhage prophylaxis, effective wound dressings, exudate management, infection prophylaxis, effective debridement methods, and odor control. Limitations encountered by the clinicians studying the development and treatment of KTUs include ethical dilemmas (i.e. inducing patient fatigue, inflicting emotional distress, or occupying the patient's valuable time as they approach end of life) and limited awareness of the existence of KTUs. Further research is needed to raise awareness of the existence of KTUs and how they are indicative of skin failure, for they must be identified, diagnosed, and treated accordingly so nurses are able to better advocate for the patient and ensure quality comfort care is provided as the patient approaches end of life.
    • A Literature Review of the Negative Impact of Dementia on the Nutritional Status of Hospitalized Elderly Patients

      Frost, Marion; Geary, Jennifer (2014-05-17)
      Dementia is a progressive psychological disorder in the elderly population that leads to cognitive impairment and can have an impact on many areas of their life, especially nutrition. It is very common to see hospitalized dementia patients not receiving proper nutrition because they are unable to feed themselves, and often are not provided with the help they need. Nutrition is often a topic that is overlooked in the hospital setting because of the narrow focus on the patient’s diagnosis that caused their admission. Dementia is also a disease that may not be diagnosed until it has progressed to later stages, with the person suffering for many years before interventions take place. This is a very important issue in nursing because malnutrition can lead to further illness and a delay of healing in the elderly, leading to prolonged hospital stays, readmissions, and reoccurring health problems in these patients. This thesis will be a review of medical and nursing journals that look at the impact of dementia on proper nutrition in the hospitalized patients and the different nursing interventions that are used to improve nutrition in these patients. I will also make suggestions for changes in these nursing interventions to improve their effectiveness. A review of the epidemiology of dementia and nutrition requirements of the elderly person will also be included in this thesis.
    • A Literature Review of the Onset of Social Media and its Effect on HIPPA Violations

      Magazzu, Tammi; Bogosian, Jamie (2014-05-17)
      Social media has become increasingly popular in the United States and is accessed daily. It consists of different websites such as Facebook and Twitter. Access to these websites is easy and fast, allowing users to frequently network. In many situations, social media can be utilized in a positive manner. However, in fields such as nursing, social media can be detrimental. The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, HIPAA, provides specific and strict regulations regarding the use of social media in the medical field. Breaching patient confidentiality can jeopardize a nurse’s job and future career. With the onset of social media, HIPAA violations have increased. This thesis will provide a literature review of social media and its onset, and how it affected HIPAA. I will show how these websites have caused more violations of HIPAA, and provide interventions and suggestions to decrease the violations. Specific methods will be included to show how the problem can be fixed. In addition, a brief history of social media will be provided to illustrate how it is extremely prevalent.
    • Living With Cardiovascular Disease: The Connection Between Mental Health And Quality Of Life

      Ebersole, Nancy; Desir, Pascale (2022-05-01)
      Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. Depression and anxiety have been identified as common factors occurring with advanced heart disease. An unhealthy lifestyle, such as poor dietary habits or improper coping mechanisms is correlated with the onset of anxiety and depression. Patients with cardiovascular disease that are faced with various stressors as well as depression and anxiety are at risk for poor prognosis of their disease and an overall decreased quality of life. A systematic review was conducted using the CINAHL PLUS database to determine what mental health factors affect the outcome for individuals with cardiovascular disease. The results of this systematic review of seven academic articles outlined five themes that influence the quality of life for individuals with cardiovascular disease. The themes are (a) life satisfaction; (b) socioeconomic status and emotional state; (c) anxiety and fear; (d) stress and distress; and (e) depressive disorders. These results help to identify specific interventions that health care providers should implement when caring for patients with cardiovascular disease. Healthcare professionals should continuously monitor the mental status of their patients with cardiovascular disease, in order to treat their patients. By doing so this has the potential to reduce the progression of heart disease and improve their overall quality of life.
    • Managing Pain In Children: Barriers To Effective Care

      Ebersole, Nancy; Agno, Sandrei (2022-05-01)
      This thesis focuses upon pain management in a healthcare setting and at home, specifically within the population of children. The purpose of this research is to understand why assessment and pain management of children is difficult for healthcare providers and caregivers. This study covers the influencing factors that act as barriers in the direct care of healthcare providers to children. The aim is to understand why these barriers affect successful pain assessment and management. A systematic literature review was conducted to investigate the challenges that affect successful care for children. There were four themes that were identified in the eight articles that met the criteria for the barriers of pain assessment and management. The themes identified were the healthcare worker’s ability to collect subjective and objective data, communication within staff and family, forgotten priorities by healthcare providers and a child’s inability to rate their own pain. Recognizing these challenges and how they hinder optimal childcare will promote good patient outcomes and support child growth and development.
    • Minimizing The Risk Of Orthopedic Surgical Site Infections In The Pediatric Population: Using Evidence To Inform Practice

      Ebersole, Nancy; Gridley, Alaina (2021-05-01)
      Surgical site infections are some of the most common hospital-acquired infections and are associated with higher rates of morbidity and mortality for patients. Surgical site infections can also increase length of hospital stay for patients and elevate healthcare costs. There is extensive literature exploring risk factors associated with acquiring surgical site infections in adults undergoing orthopedic surgery, however, literature exploring this topic in the pediatric population is limited. Additionally, many interventions and assumed risks within the pediatric population are extrapolated from data collected from adults. A systematic review of the literature was done using the CINAHL database to identify risk factors associated with acquiring surgical site infections in the pediatric orthopedic patient population and interventions to help mitigate these risks. The result of these studies showed that both weight and nutritional status played a role in predicting the incidences of acquiring a surgical site infection. Additionally, prophylactic antibiotic selection and dosing needs to be specific to both the possible pathogen and the patient. A bundle approach to interventions can help to reduce the rate of surgical site infections, however, strict compliance amongst staff can be difficult to ensure. It is imperative as healthcare professionals that we work lo identify associated risk factors for developing surgical site infections within the pediatric population undergoing orthopedic surgery. The identification of these risk factors can guide evidence-based practice to establish interventions that can mitigate these risks and promote health and safety for the pediatric population.
    • The Mirena Migraine - A Review of the Pharmacodynamics of Levonorgestrel and Its Implications in Women's Health

      Magazzu, Tammi; Earl, Lexus (2014-05-17)
      The new progestin, levonorgestrel, delivered via an intrauterine system or subdermal implant is showing promising signs of preventing pregnancy, decreasing excessive bleeding with menstruation, and returning fertility when removed (Backman, 2004). As promising as the levonorgestrel parental systems are, side effects are a common cause for concern and are a large reason for premature removal (Coukell & Balfour, 1998). Other than prolonged bleeding from insertion, and heavier periods for some women, other side effects have been observed such as weight gain, mood changes, dizziness and persistent, headache (Backman, 2004). With headache being one of the primary reasons for premature removal, previous literature has shown strong antiestrogenic activity among the pharmacodynamics of levonorgestrel (Schindler, 2003), which in turn may be the causative agent for the headache experienced among users. Given that headaches are mediated by vasodilation and vasoconstriction, the antiestrogenic activity of levonorgestrel is hypothesized to affect estrogen mediated vasodilation (Schindler, 2003). As one of the strongest antagonist of estrogen, levonorgestrel has also been discussed to affect the oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol impacting the endothelium of the cardiac vasculature (Zhu, Bonet, & Knopp, 2000). This review aims to identify how levonorgestrel could be the causative agent for the physiologic phenomenon of a headache experienced among users so that medical professionals and drug manufacturers can be guided towards developing and prescribing a more effective and tolerable birth control option.
    • Nonpharmacologic Interventions For Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome: A Systematic Review Of The Literature

      Orelup-Fitzgerald, Courtney; Scanlan, Kathleen (2019-05-01)
      The incidence of Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS) is increasing due to the current opioid epidemic. The foundation of NAS treatment has been pharmacotherapy but nonpharmacologic interventions are increasingly used to alleviate symptoms, reduce the amount of pharmacotherapy needed, and decrease the hospital length of stay (LOS). A systematic review of the literature was performed to identify nonpharmacologic interventions (NPI) that effectively improve NAS treatment outcomes and to identify gaps in current knowledge about NPI. Eight NPI were used as key words in literature searches: infant massage, parental presence, breastfeeding, Reiki, vibrotactile stimulation, acupuncture, non-nutritive sucking, and auditory stimulation. Results found nine studies that met the inclusion criteria: one study investigating the effect of infant massage, three studies on outcomes of parental presence, two studies on the effects of breastfeeding, one study on outcomes of Reiki, one study on vibrotactile stimulation, and one study on laser acupuncture. No studies assessed non-nutritive sucking or auditory stimulation interventions. NPI found to be effective in reducing NAS symptoms were infant massage (one study), parental presence (one study), and breastfeeding (one study). Decreased LOS was associated with parental presence (three studies), breast feeding (one study), and laser acupuncture (one study). Laser acupuncture also reduced the length of time the infant required medication (one study). Parental presence and breastfeeding each had one study where decreased amounts of medication were needed. Reiki and vibrotactile stimulation were not found to be effective interventions. A gap identified is the scarcity of research on the effectiveness of NPI.
    • Nurse To Patient Ratios: Government Mandated Or Evidence Based?

      Ebersole, Nancy; Robitaille, Jessica (2019-05-01)
      Nurse to patient ratios are currently controversial in health care. The central issue is what is a safe limit to the number of patients for whom an RN is responsible in the acute care setting? Some states require a committee at each facility to determine ratios whereas in other states, the legislature has established what the ratio must be. A systematic review of the literature was conducted using CINAHL to identify the major factors being used to determine a safe nurse to patient ratio. Criteria for inclusion in this study were (a) published between 2013 and September 2018; (b) peer reviewed; (c) published in English and (d) had at least one nurse as an author. A combination of the following keywords were nurse to patient ratios, safety, patient outcomes and quality of care. Thirteen studies qualified for inclusion in this systematic review. Five major factors identified as determining nurse to patient ratios are the educational levels of the nursing staff, patient acuity, patient outcomes, cost and the staffing method of the institution based upon cost/budget, nurse to patient ratio or patient acuity. The staffing method chosen is a decision between administrators and the nursing leadership. Cost is more heavily weighted by administrators than by the nursing leadership. These five factors are not constants and the dynamic environment of acute care nursing does not lend itself to staffing that does not consider these factors. Government mandated nurse to patient staffing ratios cannot provide the work environment that provides for the nursing needs of today’s patient populations.
    • The Nurse's Role During The Childbirth Experience Of First-Time Fathers

      Moske-Weber, Charlene; Libby, Sara (2019-05-01)
      The experience of first-time fathers during childbirth has changed dramatically over the last several decades. Recent studies have demonstrated that though the support person plays a major role in childbirth, they are often overlooked. Some first-time fathers may feel like they did not have many choices or a voice in the childbirth experience. This study analyzed the experiences of seven first-time fathers through personal interviews and is aimed at helping nurses adapt their care to better include fathers. These interviews identified a need for improved assessment of first-time fathers desired involvement in childbirth and ultimately leading to the development of an efficient tool to fill this gap.
    • The Nurses' Role Supporting Quality of Life in School-Aged Children (ages 7-17) with Brain Tumors; Role in Clinic and Support Group

      Leger, Robin; Dunnebier, Nichole (2014-05-17)
      Background: The United States is home to approximately 13,000 Pediatric Nurse Practitioners (PNP), professionals whom are deemed capable of providing care to the growing number of children with chronic illnesses (Dunham, Freed, Lamard, Loveland-Cherry, Martyn, 2010). Some 2,000 children are affected by brain tumors each year and are often cared for by a PNP. They can suffer from affected Health Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) factors or sequela that the PNP is responsible for addressing. Objective: To gain insight into the PNP’s role in caring for the pediatric patient with a brain tumor and observe how she addressed HRQOL factors and long-term sequela the child is faced with. Methods: An observational descriptive study was conducted. A convenience sample of six children undergoing treatment in clinic and nine children in remission at a support group were observed, specifically appraising the PNP’s role in caring for them. Results: Children seen in both the clinic and the support group experience HRQOL factors, and the PNP addressed them in several different ways. She assessed the children’s signs and symptoms, made plans of care, identified referrals needed, and made them feel as though they had were a part of a group with hope for the future. Conclusion: The PNP plays a pivotal role in caring for children with brain tumors through continuity of care; they are one of the first people to meet the patient and family members, and are responsible to ensure their comfort. PNPs also play the vital role of assessing the patient and identifying the child and family needs, any abnormalities, as well as addressing sequela. Finally, in support group, the PNP is a facilitator for the children’s peer support, reflection on their experiences and promotes hope for their future.
    • Nurses’ Perspectives On Spiritual Care And Its Connection To Healing

      Ebersole, Nancy; McNair, Therese (2018-01-01)
      A holistic centered approach to nursing emphasizes the importance of involving the individual’s psychological health, physical well-being and spirituality. Specifically, spiritual care is commonly overlooked by nurses during the care of their patients. Excluding a patient’s spirituality can impact their recovery and inhibit their return to full health. The purpose of this study is to identify nurses’ perceptions of spiritual care and its connection to healing. Based upon the HOPE and FICA spiritual assessment tools, a survey was sent to nursing faculty at a state university which asked them to reflect on their perceptions of spirituality and healing. The response rate was 38%. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were applied, making this a mixed study. Themes were identified through the application of thematic analysis. The most common theme was the perception that spiritual care is acknowledging and respecting a patient’s beliefs and religious practices when providing care. The next predominant themes were the need to work with the patient and/or their families to provide care in line with their beliefs and the importance of addressing the individual holistically. Results also revealed that while a majority of nurses practiced spiritual care and related it to healing, they did not inquire how they could meet their patients’ spiritual needs while providing care. A unifying definition of spiritual care among nurses was not identified. These findings show that nurses do not include patients and families in providing for their spiritual needs. As a result of this, patients are not receiving the personalized holistic care necessary for healing.
    • Nurses’ Role In Prevention Of Hospital Admissions Among Long-Term Care Patients: A Systematic Review Of The Literature

      Delis, Pamela; Nowka, Scott; Lampasona, Jessica (2018-01-01)
      The number of Americans in long-term care (LTC) facilities is growing rapidly. The average lifespan is increasing, and the baby boomer generation is aging. This puts stress on both LTC facilities as well as hospitals (McAndrew, Grabowski, Dangi, & Young, 2015). In order for the healthcare system to run efficiently, all healthcare providers need to be aware of this issue. Methods to prevent potentially avoidable hospitalizations (PAH) should be available for nurses. This systematic review of the literature discusses the current literature about possible prevention methods. This review includes articles that identify the major causes of PAH as well as articles that explore different ways to minimize them. Many LTC residents require care in a hospital setting from time to time, and some more frequently than others. The term “potentially avoidable hospitalization” is used to categorize a required hospitalization that could have been avoided (McAndrew et al., 2015). Whether from a fall, a medication error, an infectious process, or another avoidable cause, such hospitalizations have negative impacts on the patient and are a huge expense for healthcare (Walsh et al., 2012). Some LTC patients are admitted to the hospital repeatedly, and sometimes for the same problem. Proper planning and care from nurses and other healthcare providers can lower the number of PAH this population experiences. This article reviews tools and techniques available for nurses so they will be aware of such methods. Additional research, including more randomized controlled trials, are needed since this is a rising issue in healthcare and there is currently no golden standard for nursing practice in this area.
    • Nursing Burnout: Evaluation Of Self-Care And Nursing Burnout In A Critical Care Setting

      Frost, Marion; Aster, Seth (2019-05-01)
      Background/Purpose: Nursing burnout is a pressing issue in healthcare, and it is often overlooked. Many factors can affect your risk for nursing burnout. Some of these factors include age, length of time working as a nurse, number of children at home, place of employment, etc. The purpose of this study is to evaluate how the self-care and health management of critical care nurses affects their risk for nursing burnout. Design/Method: A non-interventional survey study was conducted in the Surgical Intensive Care Unit at a Level 2 Trauma Center north of Boston, MA. 31 nurses completed and handed back two surveys that were administered. The Professional Quality of Life (ProQOL) Version 5 survey was one of the surveys that was administered. The other survey was the Self-Care and Lifestyle Inventory. By cross-analyzing the results, the relationship between nursing burnout risk and self-care was evaluated. Results: The data was analyzed using SPSS Version 23. The results of the study were quite conclusive. The participants scores for the Self-Care and Lifestyle Inventory are significantly negatively correlated to their scores for Nursing Burnout (r = -.540). This proves the hypothesis that self-care is directly related to nursing burnout. Nursing Implications: Because nursing burnout affects patient care, the results of this study can be used in other critical care units where staff suffer from high levels of nursing burnout. Creating a healthy working environment should be made a priority to decrease stress levels of critical care nurses.
    • Nursing Care Considerations Among Maternity Patients Who Have Undergone Female Genital Mutilation/ Female Circumcision

      Delis, Pamela; Coreas, Iliana (2018-01-01)
      Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) is defined as “procedures that intentionally alter and cause injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons” by the World Health Organization (2018). FGM is a complicated subject matter to explore, not only because of what it entails, but also due to the identified gap in research about the proper care for these women here in the US. FGM can be very traumatizing and can affect so many aspects of these women's lives. The alteration and injury to the female's genital organs complicate and change the normal care plans for a pregnant patient that has undergone FGM. According to UNICEF, “there are approximately three million women and girls who have undergone FGC (Female Genital Circumcision) living in the United States” (Little, 2015). This number was estimated 5 years ago, and due to recent immigration patterns it is likely that this number will continue to rise. The increasing number of girls and women who have undergone FGM that live here in the US and the limited amount of identified research on this subject supports the need for this inquiry. A review of the literature was conducted using the Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) database and PubMed for years 2012-2018. A review of eight identified articles substantiate that significant risks and complications exist for women who have undergone female genital mutilation. The obstetrical complications of FGM include hemorrhage, injuries due to tearing and episiotomies, extended hospital stays, and emotional and cultural insensitivity experienced by patients. A gap in research exists related to nursing care considerations for this population. Research suggests that education about this topic and becoming culturally sensitive can help nurses provide appropriate care. There are also a number of obstetrical procedures that can lower the complications that FGM may cause during labor/birth. Further research should focus on nursing implications and interventions for the safe and appropriate care for these women.