• Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infection Reduction: Using Evidence to Inform Practice

      Ebersole, Nancy; Cohen, Christopher (2021-05-01)
      Central line-associated bloodstream infections or CLABSIs cause major life-threatening illnesses that have a high prevalence rate within our healthcare industry today. CLABSIs not only cause potentially fatal consequences for patients, but also cost hospitals a substantial amount of money to treat these infections. CLABSIs can result from not only the insertion of the central line from a healthcare provider, but also in the central line care by nursing staff. Therefore, hospitals have implemented standardized "bundles" for central lines to try to reduce the overall amount of CLABSIs. However, many hospitals are not seeing a significant decrease in the number of infections from the time that they adopted these practices. A systematic review of literature was conducted using the CINAHL Plus database to investigate the efforts of trying to reduce the overall occurrence of CLABSIs and the success rates of these practices. Major themes include the implementation of bundles for central lines are not being consistently applied by those working at the bedside. Inconsistency with the implementation of bundles of care for central lines can be attributed to incomplete knowledge of what needs to be done; while the presence of written policies do not ensure policy compliance. Nurses are at the frontline to ensure patient safety and reducing patient risk for acquiring CLABSIs. It is important that nurses identify the barriers to compliance and collaborate to create effective strategies to promote patient safety and lower the overall occurrence of these life-threatening infections.
    • Communication Techniques Used by Medical and Surgical Nurses to Communicate with Patients with Alzheimer's Disease

      Frost, Marion; Mathieu, Chelsea (2014-05-17)
      Through the process of a literature review and an online survey of medical and surgical nurses currently working in the hospital environment, this study investigates “Techniques Used by Medical and Surgical Nurses to Communicate with Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease.” The literature review covers current research explaining how Alzheimer’s disease affects a person’s ability to verbally communicate and ability to understand verbal communication. The research also covers the most effective communication techniques to utilize when communicating with a person with Alzheimer’s disease. Nurses in the medical and surgical fields have been given an online survey which includes demographic information, scenarios, and various communication techniques that could be implemented when talking to someone with Alzheimer’s disease. The information from the online survey has been analyzed for trends to show if nurses are using the proper techniques when communicating or if they are following the misconceptions. This study contributes to an area of research that is lacking information, as well as explores if medical and surgical nurses are communicating effectively with an ever growing population of patients with Alzheimer’s disease.
    • Current Range Of Treatments And Therapies In Children And Adolescents Diagnosed With ADHD; A Systematic Review Of The Literature

      Campbell, Charlene; MacLeod, Cameron (2018-01-01)
      Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a disorder that affects many children and adolescents in the United States. ADHD is associated with inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity that usually starts during childhood and can last throughout life. The objective was to compile and synthesize the data on the many treatments available and gain insight from the results. This review of the literature examines research studies pertaining to the different therapies and the effects on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder with a focus on children and adolescents. It is the hope that in looking at a broad range of therapies we can work towards a future goal of better individualized treatment outcomes without a major reliance on pharmaceuticals.
    • Daily Living in Young Adults with Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (EDS)

      Leger, Robin; Hollohan, Marjorie (2018-01-01)
      Background and Significance: Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (EDS) is a rare, genetic connective tissue disorder that effects the production of collagen in the body, resulting in chronic pain, hypermobility and the need for many medical interventions. There is often a delay in diagnosis into adolescence or young adult life due to variability in multi-organ symptoms and their severity leading to misdiagnosis and uncertainty. Connective tissue holds the whole body together and when the collagen in that tissue doesn’t work the way it is supposed to, it can make changes in the way people live their lives. Methods: A qualitative, phenomenological study was conducted to explore what changes this condition can make to a person’s life. 5 women aged 18-22 were interviewed in person or via video chat. These interviews were later transcribed and analyzed. Results: Themes that emerged from the data were pain limiting daily tasks, the invisibility of the disease, and uncertainty about future of the condition.
    • Depression and Mental Health Awareness Regarding Adololescents Within the Primary Health Care Setting: Study Protocol

      Fraley, Hannah; Visconti, Andrew (2015-05-01)
      Background: Depression is a serious illness, warranting adequate access to care and treatment among adolescents. The aim of this study was to further understand college students’ perception of mental illness and perceived parental views regarding mental health disorders. Methods: Ethnicity and fields of study were analyzed to note any significance amongst the groups. Convenience sampling was used, targeting participants’ ages 18-25 years at Salem State University. Using mixed methods methodology, participants was asked to conduct a survey questionnaire. Survey questions were geared towards participant perception of depression, and perceptions of parental views on mental illness. Results: A total of 266 anonymous surveys were collected and analyzed to find that the majority of participants’ parental views on education and depression were correct. On the other hand, 25% of surveyors believed that their parents would believe that depression is caused by bad or weak character. As for ethnicity, Asian or Pacific Islander (50%), Hispanic or Latinos (35%), and Black or African American (36%) were more likely to think that their parents would believe that depression is caused by bad or weak character. As for fields of study, non-science majors were more likely to have stigmatizing beliefs in regards to depression. Conclusion: Further education on depression knowledge should be acknowledged in the school system, media, and more importantly; our health care system. Increased and more in-depth screenings for adolescent depression should be seen by the primary health care provider in order to decrease the number of untreated depression cases. For future studies, a more in-depth survey should be distributed with a larger sample size to increase the numbers in diversity.
    • Does Maternal Breastfeeding Have Positive Long-Term Effects on Neurocognitive Development?

      Adee, Kathleen; Anonymous (2019-05-01)
      This study comprised a systematic review of literature based on the, long-term benefits of maternal breastfeeding on neurocognitive development in children. The immediate known benefits of breastfeeding are well documented throughout numerous research studies such as nutritional benefits and immunological growth. However, there are limited studies on the long-term effects of maternal breast feeding. The purpose of this research is to review literature on the long-term effects of maternal breastfeeding on neurocognitive development in children, specifically focusing on intelligence and language development. A total of 10 articles met the inclusion criteria and were used for this literature review. Among the different studies, the ages that were assessed are from the first year of life throughout 15 years of life. A positive impact is suggested after reviewing the research, but it only has a minor impact when being compared to children who were either formula fed or fed for shorter durations. The research reviewed shows positive effects on intelligence and language among children as old as 15 but due to the lack of existing literature, long-term benefits of neurocognitive development into adulthood could not be assessed.
    • Easing the Emotional Burden of Families When a Child Has Cancer: The Application of Evidence to Nursing Practice

      Ebersole, Nancy; Aliberti, Mary (2021-05-01)
      The nurse’s role in caring for a child with cancer has its challenges, but when done correctly can positively affect the well-being of a patient and their family. Both the patient and family go through major psychosocial shifts from the time that the child receives the diagnosis of cancer. This time of considerable transition can leave families feeling lost during an already uncertain period. Keeping patients and family members involved throughout the course of treatment is essential for the success of effective care. The database CINAHL Plus was used to do a systematic review of the literature to identify common issues in pediatric oncology nursing practice and the toll that this can take on patients and their family’s mental well-being. Common themes identified in the literature are family members are in different developmental stages and each requires a unique approach; caregiver knowledge or lack thereof is a major factor in family well-being; and a child’s ability to communicate and be heard impacts how the need for care is perceived and provided. This is an important topic because nurses must consider the psychosocial needs of the family unit as well the physical needs when it comes to providing optimal care. Dealing with a diagnosis as harmful as cancer is a considerable amount of stress to be put on a young child and the family. Knowledge of what is currently known will lead to more effective communication with patients and family members, resulting in greater health outcomes.
    • Education Needs of Adults Living with Sickle Cell Disease in the U.S. and Jamaica

      Leger, Robin; Jordan, Kyle (2016-05-01)
      Purpose: To identify psychosocial and physiological components of sickle cell disease (SCD) health promotion to be included in patient and family education materials provided to an adult living with SCD for the promotion of wellness and reduction in complications of the disease. Background and significance: SCD occurs in approximately one in five hundred Jamaican born people and about 0.49 out of 1000 in America and results in intense pain episodes, and multi­organ failure (Knight-Madden, 2011). The role of the nurse and other healthcare providers as well as community based organizations in patient education is critical for promotion of quality of life. Tannahill (2009) argues that "fostering of empowering attributes such as resilience, self­esteem, confidence and lifeskills" also falls under the realm of education. Methods: A combination of telephone and written questionnaires were completed by nurse experts caring for patients with SCD in the U.S. and Jamaica, as well as executive board members of community based organizations for the support of community members living with SCD and their families. Discussion: There is a consensus that individuals with SCD are not adequately educated about the condition and its implications. Respondents recommended that those living with SCD be taught about basic physiology of the disease, family planning, early signs of complications, and exacerbating factors. Furthermore, each respondent explored barriers to effective educational interventions as well as methods of enhancing the quality and effectiveness of these interactions. This information can be used to develop effective educational materials for improving health outcomes.
    • Effective Communication in Nursing: Is it Necessary to Know your own Sociological Bias?

      Campbell, Charlene; Rauseo, Megan Marie (2016-05-01)
      Through a discussion of the nursing literature and sociological theory, this Commonwealth Honors Thesis aims to answer the question; Is it necessary to know your own sociological bias in nurse to nurse communication. The focus begins with the qualifications of effective communication as a concept and then applies that specifically to communication between nurses. In addition, the discussion focuses on the topic of awareness vs. unawareness of sociological bias. The discussion includes passages and inclusion of nine pieces of nursing literature, including articles, books, and textbooks. Through out the researched literature connections were made between sociology and nursing. The result showed that is it absolutely necessary to be self aware of sociological bias in nurse to nurse communication.
    • Effective Non-Pharmacological Pain Relief Interventions For Pediatric Patients: A Systematic Review Of The Literature

      Ebersole, Nancy; Acuna, Ariana (2019-12-01)
      Managing pediatric pain is an important role of the registered nurse. This can be a challenge, as pediatric patients often do not have the ability or the vocabulary to verbalize that they are in pain. Non-pharmacological interventions are important to use as an alternative to pharmacological pain relief because it is safer, cost-effective, and kid-friendly. Non-pharmacological interventions can create a positive hospital experience for both the pediatric patient and the family. The family and patient can carry on this positive experience with and seek medical care in the future with no hesitation. A systematic review of the literature was done using CINAHL to identify effective non-pharmacological pain relief interventions for pediatrics. Criteria for inclusion in this study were: peer reviewed articles, full text, English, and the journal subsets: nursing/core nursing. The results of the studies demonstrated that distraction interventions which stimulated the auditory and visual sense were the most effective in relieving pediatric pain. These included play, dancing, music, animated cartoons, and blowing bubbles. Parental involvement in these non-pharmacological interventions was also effective. Ineffective non-pharmacological interventions were those that stimulated the olfactory sense. Studies that compared non-pharmacological interventions to pharmacological pain management determined that they were equally as effective. Non-pharmacological pain relief interventions for pediatric patients can provide both short-term and long-term benefits. Providing education to registered nurses on what non-pharmacological pain relief intervention are effective can decrease the use of drugs for pain management.
    • The Effects Of A Safe Sleep Environment And The Reduction Of SIDS

      Moske-Weber, Charlene; Sarwar, Sonia (2019-05-01)
      This research addresses the prevalence of the phenomenon Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). Not much is known about the pathophysiology of SIDS, but steps can be taken to help decrease the risk of the disease, yet, it still prevails. The aim of this research will be to look closer into the risk factors for SIDS and its prevalence since the creation of the 1994 public health initiative, the 'Back to Sleep Campaign'. There are many complexities to its prevalence including but not limited to race, culture, education level, income, individual nursing practices, and lack of SIDS policies in hospitals. This research will look closely into these different risk factors and what can be done from a nurse’s stand point. SIDS risk reduction is important to nursing because its reduction is primarily education based. At risk populations are not receiving the proper education on SIDS and its risk reduction. The lack of nursing education with the combination of other risk factors mentioned before creates a complex situation to which a solution is necessary. The research for this paper will be gathered through a systematic review of literature. All articles will be gathered using the nursing database Medline Plus and will include qualitative and quantitative research articles published between 2010-2018. All articles used for this paper will be in English and limited to the age group 'infant, newborn: birth-1 month'.
    • The Effects Of Maternal Substance Use On Gestational Development And Neonates

      Burnett, Paula; Nowka, Scott; Fraley, Hannah; McElligott, Kelly (2017-04-23)
      This paper will focus on the effects of maternal substance use on the gestational development of neonates. The research for this paper will be gathered through a systematic review of the literature, which will include both quantitative and qualitative peer-reviewed articles published within the last six years. The articles will be gathered using databases including CINAHL and EBSCO. The research will include many substances that can have an effect on gestational development including alcohol, cannabis, amphetamines and opioids. The articles will not be limited to a specific maternal age range or ethnic or racial background, but rather all of the articles will include women who used substances at any point during their pregnancies. The demographics of the women and their socioeconomic status will be taken into consideration when analyzing the outcomes of the fetuses. For the purposes of this article, there will be a zero tolerance of substance use allowed during pregnancy and any use above zero would be considered abuse. The research will look into the roles of the women, their existing families and the physicians. The research will also explore the relationship between previous substance use and use during pregnancy. Some current research supports that there is a definite risk in healthy development of a fetus when substance use occurs during pregnancy. There are many outside factors, such as marital status, socioeconomic status and social class, that play a role in the resources available as well as the treatment provided to these women and fetuses. The goal of this study is to spread awareness of the effects of substance use during pregnancy and to help not only health care providers, but also women become more educated in the area, and therefore make more knowledgeable choices.
    • An Evaluation Of Knowledge And Perception Amongst Nursing Students Pertaining To Ibuprofen

      Ebersole, Nancy; Nowka, Scott; Pelletier, Jacqueline (2020-05-01)
      Ibuprofen is one of the most common over-the-counter pain medications accessible to consumers. It is known that ibuprofen can be dangerous to certain individuals (Curfman, 2015). This includes people who take this drug over prolonged periods of time, those who do not follow the necessary instructions/precautions, who may have heart disease or gastrointestinal complications, and others who may be at high risk for non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use. A 16-item questionnaire was developed to assess: a) how and when the decision is made to take pain medication, b) knowledge of recommendations and precautions related to the use of ibuprofen, c) how the decision is made to determine the amount of medication to take, and d) knowledge of potentially dangerous side effects. The data of this survey showed that a majority of nursing students knew critical components to proper use of ibuprofen. It also demonstrated upperclassmen students to contain more knowledge regarding ibuprofen dosaging than underclassmen. Although there were important educational points that students knew pertaining to ibuprofen, there were also gaps in the necessary knowledge that the survey indicated. With appropriate education and teaching of this common over-the-counter medication, it can decrease the risk for potentially dangerous complications in certain individuals. Due to this drug being so widely used and easily accessible, preventing improper use is essential for protecting our communities.
    • Factors Affecting the Quality of Life of Residents in Nursing Homes: Knowledge and Strategies for the Novice Nurse

      Leger, Robin; Angel, Katelin N (2016-05-01)
      Background and Significance: Quality of Life (QOL) is a major focus of practice in all areas of nursing, including promoting QOL for the elderly. New graduate Registered Nurses (RNs) have the option of working in a nursing home for their first career opportunity. The significant increase in the Baby Boomer population (nearly tripling between 1980-2030) will cause an influx of nursing home residents as they require nursing home services. Review of the Literature: Quality of Life (QOL) is important to providing quality, holistic care. Many factors encompass QOL. It is necessary for the new graduate RN to learn about interventions that positively impact nursing home residents' QOL. The literature review speaks only about first-hand studies focusing on nursing home residents' own interpretations of QOL factors. Several QOL domains were identified including promoting comfort, meaningful relationships, and maintaining autonomy and dignity. Undergraduate nursing education and new graduate orientation programs offer little information on the nurse's role in promoting QOL in the elderly. Implications for Novice Nurse Education: A table was adapted to show the QOL domains for the Elderly and possible RN Interventions to positively impact nursing home residents QOL. Provided with education focused on competencies for promoting QOL in the elderly, the new graduate RN will be able to use the interventions presented in the table to realize ways to positively impact QOL of nursing home residents during their first nursing experience as a novice nurse.
    • Factors That Affect An Adolescent Mother’s Decision To Breastfeed: A Systematic Review Of The Literature

      Ebersole, Nancy; Faranna, Lena; Guillen, Ashley (2020-05-01)
      Adolescent mothers do not breastfeed for the recommended duration of six months in comparison to the general population of those who are actively breastfeeding. Two systematic reviews of the literature were conducted to identify the factors that lead to breastfeeding cessation and the types of social support that healthcare providers implement when caring for adolescent mothers. Adolescent mothers’ decision to stop breastfeeding is to due to intrinsic and extrinsic reasons. Support from health care providers is essential in resolving any factors that lead to breastfeeding cessation. Health care providers should consider informational, instrumental, emotional, appraisal/esteem, and network support, when responding to the needs of adolescent mothers. The results of this systematic review provides healthcare professionals with evidence to support adolescent mothers with strategies to breastfeed for the recommended duration of six months.
    • Health Benefits Of Breastfeeding For Infants, Leading To Developmental Differences Between Breast-fed And Formula-fed Infants

      Burnett, Paula; Holloway, Heidi (2017-03-01)
      This systematic literature review of health benefits of breastfeeding for infants serves to educate mothers about any potential developmental differences between breast-fed and formula-fed infants. Many factors go into a mother’s decision regarding feeding methods, but there may be gaps in knowledge that are important and significant between feeding methods. Breastfeeding vs. formula feeding has become a controversial social issue in our society. Other literature reviews as well as qualitative and quantitative studies were reviewed in order to clarify which method is better, specifically in terms of infant development and why. Analysis and review of data from these studies may clarify the answer to this question and may support the hypothesis that breastfeeding is more beneficial developmentally for infants than formula feeding. From this review, it can be concluded that the differences in development between breastfed and formula-fed infants are not significant, but there appear to be more benefits and advancements in infants who were breastfed, even for short periods. In yielding these results, it is possible that more mothers will choose breastfeeding and more healthcare providers, particularly nurses, will better educate about the differences and benefits of both methods. This may lead to healthier infant development in the future.
    • How Stigma and Negative Attitudes Towards the Mentally Ill Affect Patients' Quality of Care: Moving Towards a Better Understanding for Change

      Fraley, Hannah; Shanahan, Molly (2015-05-01)
      Background: 1 out of every 4 American adults currently have a form of mental illness, while 50% of others will develop a mental disorder at some point in time. Mental illness not only emotionally deteriorates a person; it impairs one’s ability to function daily. Mental illness is highly correlated with other chronic diseases, such as diabetes, cardiac conditions and obesity, as well as homelessness and drug and alcohol dependency. The mentally ill are less likely to access healthcare for treatment due to experienced stigmatization, negative attitudes and stereotypes due to their diagnosis. The aim of this study is to detect and understand the negative attitudes towards the mentally ill, and to recognize how to work towards facilitating change in health care. Methods: CINAHL databases were searched to identify studies performed relating to the stigmatization of mental illnesses and how negative stereotypes affected patients’ quality of care. Results included data from qualitative and quantitative studies. Out of 171 reviewed papers, 11 met the criteria to perform this literature analysis. Results: Stigma towards the mentally ill is a prominent theme identified within the literature. Evidence based changes to eliminate stigma and negative attitudes towards mental disorders must be taken to improve quality of care. Understanding experienced stigma among the mentally ill is a first step to promote much-needed changes to health care delivery.
    • The Impact Of Disparate Treatment On Pregnancy Outcomes In Minority Women

      Ebersole, Nancy; Pueyo-Garcia, Claudia (2022-05-01)
      Pregnancy is one of the most vulnerable and important events in a woman’s life, however this experience can differ for minority women from disadvantaged backgrounds. The Center for Disease Control and Prevention reports that 700 women die each year in the US because of pregnancy or delivery complications while also reporting that Black women are three times more likely to die from pregnancy than white women. More than half of these deaths and near-deaths are the result of preventable causes, and a disproportionate number of the women suffering are Black women. A review of the literature was done using the CINAHL database, and the articles that were collected will be used to find common themes across multiple author’s findings that link directly to causative factors and their outcomes. The themes are (a) minority women experiencing lower-quality care; (b) minority women experiencing biases in communities; (c) minority women experiencing implicit bias within the health care delivery system; (d) minority women experiencing the effects of systemic oppression. Each of these elements have contributed to the rising prevalence of pregnancy-related morbidities and deaths. Nurses must advocate for high-quality, safe treatment and care for every patient to dismantle racial health disparities and decrease maternal morbidity and mortality rates. The desire to learn and to be aware of the variables influencing racial inequalities in pregnant minority women is the first step to improve health care standards and work to dismantle this growing racial health disparity.
    • Implementation Of Oral Care Guidelines To Reduce Incidences Of Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia: A Systematic Review Of The Literature

      Frost, Marion; Pechilis, Kelly (2019-05-01)
      Background/Purpose: Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia (VAP) is a disease process that can arise during the use of mechanical ventilation in the critical care setting. VAP can be prevented if adequate oral care practices are followed. The purpose of this study was to investigate how the implementation of oral care guidelines impact incidence rates of VAP in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and to determine specific oral care practices that are useful in the prevention of this disease process. Method: A systematic review of English-language literature was conducted of articles that were published after 2009. The CINAHL Plus Full Text database was used to determine suitable articles based on specific inclusion criteria. Results: Six articles were found to be relevant and were included in this systematic literature review. This systematic review of the literature investigated specific oral care practices that are recommended to prevent VAP. The American Association of Critical-Care Nurses (AACN) has oral care recommendations in place for nurses to follow however there have yet to be recommendations in place specific to patients undergoing mechanical ventilation. Additionally, this review concluded that facility implementation of oral care guidelines is found to increase nursing adherence to these recommendations. Conclusion: Implementation of oral care guidelines is encouraged to decrease incidences of VAP in the ICU. Interventions included in these protocols provide education and direction to guide nursing care and increase nursing compliance, resulting in decreased VAP incidences in the ICU. Further research is suggested to enhance evidence based nursing practices to determine oral care guidelines that are specific to the prevention of VAP in critical care settings.
    • Information Available to Patients Diagnosed with Dementia: Interviews With Caregivers and Their Experiences

      Fraley, Hannah; Williams, Leigh (2015-05-01)
      Purpose: Dementia is a prevalent problem for older adults and their families. Early intervention and a multidisciplinary approach for treatment have been linked to better quality of life. The primary objective of this study was to discover what information is available to patients with dementia upon diagnosis and how beneficial the information given is perceived by the primary caregivers. Secondary objectives included types of resources most utilized by the caregiver and how caregivers found out about such resources. Methods: A qualitative study design was employed using snowball sampling methods and semi-structured interviews among primary caregivers (n= 5) of patients with Alzheimer’s Disease (n= 3), Lewy Body Dementia (n= 1), and Dementia Unspecified (n= 1) respectively. Thematic coding methods were used to identify potential barriers to accessing timely information regarding disease prognosis and optimal resources. Results: Several themes emerged from caregiver interviews. Central themes found among the caregivers include: 1.) chronic grief 2.) chronic frustrations 3.) chronic guilt 4.) total responsibility of care. Several subthemes emerged that compound upon these caregiver experiences including provider related parries such as lack of quality information, and access barriers including difficulty finding community resources. Conclusion: Caregivers interviewed in this study perceive support from their health care team in general, yet have limited perceived support in navigating how to access community resources. Patients and their families need guidance and support from the health care team upon diagnosis, yet also need ongoing support and education while caring for a loved one with Dementia.