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  • Europe and USA: Cultural Differences in Youth Soccer Development

    McMahon, Stuart (2016-05-01)
    The objective of this thesis is to compare and contrast the differences between the cultural impact on the development of youth soccer players in the United States and the continent of Europe. Along with the cultural differences, I will be looking at the importance of playing for clubs/academies and the importance of coaches. The European model has proven to be an exceptional model in terms of developing athletes. The clubs and coaches in Europe have developed exceptional players, such as Cristiano Ronaldo and Lionel Messi. This is all down to players, such as these exceptional talents, being nurtured and protected by these clubs and coaches as they grow up. When it comes to culture, Europeans see soccer differently than Americans. Soccer and sports in general, are viewed as just entertainment in the US. It's a money-making industry. In Europe, the mentality is different. Soccer is a way to express yourself and to show your passion. What can the US learn from the European model? How can the US be on the same level as many European countries? Could they instill the same passion as the Europeans have for the beautiful game? That's what we are going to look at in this thesis. The US have the resources, but it's how they use it to their advantage.
  • Does Incorporating Dance into Elementary School Classrooms Increase Academic Achievement and Enjoyment?

    McLyman, Meghan (2016-05-01)
    The purpose of this research was to determine if incorporating dance into elementary school classrooms increases academic achievement and enjoyment. Throughout this project, an experiment was done with second graders that supported this idea that by adding dance into classroom lessons, students achieve more. These students scored higher on an assessment after including movement into the lesson. Some of them enjoyed the lessons more with dance and others did not. Previous research found that dance helps the student learning process due to its ability to meet diverse needs, its effect on the memory, and increase on student engagement. Dance also connects to Bloom's Taxonomy and Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences. Students with different disabilities have also shown higher academic achievement when dance is used in their classrooms. It helps with attention and stimulating the brain. Along with this research, four mini units are attached that incorporate dance for teachers to use as examples as to how to incorporate dance into their lessons. These include English Language Arts, Math, Science, and Social Studies lesson made for second graders using Massachusetts State Standards and National Dance Standards for second graders. Through the experiment, research, and creation of lesson plans, it can be said that incorporating dance into elementary school classrooms increases academic achievement and may increase overall enjoyment.
  • The Sociology of Miley Cyrus

    McLyman, Meghan (2015-05-01)
    Miley Cyrus is the pop music industry's current puzzle. The public cannot seem to figure her out and neither can other music professionals. Her goody-two shoes image was birthed through her role of Disney Pop Princess, Hannah Montana when Cyrus was 12. Since then, she has created four studio albums, released 26 singles, taken a break from music, made headlines for raunchy behavior, chopped off her hair, completely recreated her image, and released a triple-platinum single that also won Video of the Year at the Music Television Video Music Awards in 2014. Miley Cyrus has found the key to success. She is learning the art of success in her industry as she manages to make herself happy while resonating with audiences and selling albums. I created a four-minute piece of dance choreography that reflects the research I have done on the industry and the conclusions I have drawn about the career of Miley Cyrus. See video of performance at:
  • Heart Rate Variability As A Measure Of Cardiovascular Health In Individuals With Spinal Cord Injury

    Ely, Brett (2021-05-01)
    The purpose of this study is to examine the acute responses to exercise alone, heat therapy alone, and both exercise and heat therapy on leg blood flow, blood pressure, and heart rate variability in patients who have an injury below T6 thoracic vertebrae. Due to their inability to perform full-body exercises, they tend to have lower heart rate variability and a higher chance of cardiovascular disease. Briefly, medically stable men and women with spinal cord injury (SCI) will be recruited to take part in 3 trials consisting of matched exercise (Heart rate monitored during 20 minutes of rowing) with a post-exercise treatment of 45 minutes of hot (42C) leg bathing, matched exercise (Heart rate monitored during 20 minutes of rowing) with a post-exercise treatment of 45 minutes of thermoneutral (36C) leg bathing, and no exercise with a post-exercise treatment of 45 minutes of hot (42C) leg bathing. HRV will be tracked for 24 hours pre-trial, 12 hours post-trial, and overnight (rMSSD). Leg blood flow and finometer will be measured pre-trial and during 45 minutes into leg bath. Tympanic temp, HR, and brachial BP will be measured pre-trial and 5 minutes during leg bath. We hypothesize that post-exercise leg immersion in a hot bath will increase lower leg blood flow and overnight heart rate variability to a greater extent than either exercise alone or leg heating alone. This study highlights the importance of tracking the heart rate variability while finding alternatives (exercise; heat therapy) for patients with SCI because it serves as a critical pointer for any cardiovascular risk. This study will help the people with SCI and be used as a base study for future researchers.
  • Determining The Rate Of Ipsilateral And Contralateral ACL Rupture Following ACL Reconstruction Surgery In Males And Females: A Systematic Review

    Silva, Kevin; Nowka, Scott (2019-12-01)
    Introduction: The ACL is one of the two intraarticular ligaments within the knee joint that provides stabilization and resists against anterior translation of the tibia on the femur and rotation. There are many risk factors that may predispose an athlete to an ACL tear or increase their risks, however excessive motion at any plane may cause an ACL rupture. Over the last decade, several research studies have found that the rate of ACL tears following reconstruction surgery has increased compared to previous decades. Objective: The primary objective of this systematic review was to determine the rate of ipsilateral and contralateral ACL ruptures following ACL reconstruction surgery in both males in females. Background: A literature search was performed using PubMed, Medline, Academic Search Premier, and CINAHL databases. Twelve articles met inclusion criteria and minimum score on the Modified Downs and Black for Study Quality checklist. All articles included in this systematic review include findings on the incidence of rupture rates on both the ipsilateral and contralateral ACL tears including percentages within the last 12 years and included both males and females within their study design. Results: Comparison of twelve studies included 6,901 post-operative ACL reconstruction patients, 57% male and 43% female. Patients were followed for an average of 6.9 years, with a follow-up windows ranging from 1 year to 15 years. The ipsilateral ACL re-rupture rate was 6.07% and contralateral ACL re-rupture rate was 6.89%. Overall rate of re-rupture following ACL reconstruction is 12.97% with a range of 5.96% to 35.8%. Conclusion: Post-operative ACL reconstruction patients have nearly a 13% risk of sustaining another ACL injury. Studies that followed patients for longer period of time reported higher injury rates comparatively. The research suggests that patients are more likely to tear their contralateral ACL compared to the ipsilateral following ACL reconstruction. Future longitudinal studies are needed to further examine risk of rupturing the ipsilateral or contralateral ACL following an ipsilateral reconstruction surgery, as well as, investigating possible risk factors for re-rupturing the ACL.
  • The Impact Of Body Surface Area Exposure To Menthol On Human Temperature Regulation And Perception

    Gillis, Jason; Nowka, Scott (2019-12-01)
    Menthol is an active ingredient derived from mint commonly used in sports medicine practices to treat injuries. Although known for its capacity to cause cool sensations without actually cooling the skin temperature, menthol’s effect on skin blood flow has not been clearly classified. Some research has shown menthol to increase skin blood flow (vasodilation), while others show decreases (vasoconstriction). It is hypothesized that body surface area (BSA) exposed to menthol influences blood flow. The purpose of this study was to test if large BSA exposures induce vasoconstriction while smaller exposures induce vasodilation. Twelve participants were placed into a controlled environment with a specific amount of their BSA (left middle finger, left arm, left upper/lower body) exposed to a menthol or placebo gel for 30 minutes. Thermal sensation, skin temperature, and skin blood flow were measured throughout testing. Vasodilation was not observed for small BSA. Participants exposed to large BSA experienced enhanced vasoconstriction and felt significantly cooler without change in skin temperature; partly supporting the hypothesis. Research supports menthol activation of cold receptors in the skin and causing cold sensations. Data also provides support that BSA exposure to menthol influences skin blood flow.
  • The Influence Of Exergaming On Heart Rate, Perceived Exertion, Motivation To Exercise, And Time Spent Exercising

    Schoen, Christopher (2019-05-01)
    Objective: With the technological advances in today’s society, active videogames (or exergames) have become more commonplace. Virtual reality (VR) exergames have begun to emerge with more readily available, affordable technology that can be bought online and in stores. This study focused on the popular VR game Beat Saber (Beat Games 2018) and its overall effectiveness in getting individuals to exercise in comparison to a treadmill condition one can do at a gym. It was hypothesized that participants will have similar heart rates, equally high perceived exertion, higher intrinsic motivation to exercise, and have more time spent exercising in Beat Saber than on the treadmill. Methods: Twenty young adults (male or female) were asked to participate in this two non-consecutive day study. Participants underwent two conditions in a balanced order, with half completing the exergame condition first, and the other half completing the treadmill condition first. Participants completed the remaining test condition during their second visit. The participants were evenly divided into two different groups (Group A and Group B). Those in Group A started with an exergame protocol while those in Group B started with a treadmill protocol. All participants had their heart rates, perceived exertion levels (RPE), motivation to exercise, and time spent exercising measured in both conditions. Results: A paired t-test (p < 0.05) found significant differences in mean heart rate (p = 0.003), in the intrinsic motivation subgroups of Interest/Enjoyment (p < .05) and Perceived Choice (p < .05), and in average time spent exercising (p < 0.001). The paired t-test also found no significant differences in the most active twenty-minute period mean heart rate (p = 0.92), in mean RPE (p = 0.53), or in the intrinsic motivation subgroups of Perceived Competence (p = 0.37), Effort/Importance (p = 0.48), and Value/Usefulness (p = 0.21). Conclusion: As hypothesized, the exergame Beat Saber can be considered a viable, alternative form of exercise that is also more engaging than running on the treadmill.
  • Type 2 Diabetes And Its Prevalence In The Youth Population

    Fuller, Heidi (2019-05-01)
    There is a rise in cases of Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) in all populations especially adolescents. This paper provides a literature review of clinical studies and evidence that identified the dynamics around the rise in T2D in adolescents and determined that by introducing exercise programs, altered diet and emotional support, the incidence of adolescent T2D should decrease. The prevalence of adolescent obesity directly relates to the number of youths diagnosed with T2D, so targeting obesity and T2D issues concurrently should ensure improvements in T2D. The overall goal of this project was to determine whether there was an issue regarding T2D and adolescents, the extent of that issue, and how it could be addressed. The following literature review recognizes the phenomena associated with the changing nature of T2D in the adolescent population, explores the effectiveness of interventions, and establishes the need for additional research in this area.
  • Influence Of Menthol On Human Temperature Perception, Regulation And Energy Expenditure

    Gillis, Jason (2018-01-01)
    In humans, menthol has been shown to produce a heat storage response that may be mediated in part by brown adipose tissue activation. The purpose of this study was to examine whether Menthol produces a cooling sensation, influences temperature regulation, and alters energy expenditure. To test this, seventeen healthy male participants (n = 17) between the ages of 18 and 35 were recruited to take part in this repeated-measures investigation. Participants rested supine in a temperature-controlled environment of 30℃ and 50% relative humidity. Participants rested for 30 minutes prior to Menthol or placebo gel application to establish a baseline temperature and metabolic value. A placebo gel with no Menthol and a 4.13% Menthol containing dose (Biofreeze, Performance Health, Warrenville, IL, USA) were applied to the anterior surface of each participant while they rested in the supine position at the 30-minute mark and measures were collected until the 60-minute mark. Measures collected were deep body temperature (Tre), RER, absolute VO2, relative VO2, supraclavicular skin temperature, skin blood perfusion, and thermal sensation. A one-tailed T-test and also a two tailed T-test (for metabolic data) were used to test for significance. Several measures did not show a significant response to Menthol, however, the reason for this remains unclear. The two values that showed a significant response to Menthol were deep body temperature and thermal sensation, suggesting that the Menthol containing dose had an effect on thermal sensation as well as some effect on temperature regulation. Menthol appears to cause the body to perceive that it is cooler than it is (lower thermal sensation score), while simultaneously causing it to store more heat (rectal temperature elevation). Despite the insignificant findings of several of the measures, the alternative hypothesis that Menthol produces a change in temperature perception and thermoregulation can be supported, and the hypothesis that menthol will cause no change in energy expenditure cannot be rejected.
  • Business Model For Tender Love And Care Yoga Studio

    McArdle, John (2018-01-01)
    The proposed business model for the Tender Love and Care Yoga Studio (TLC) was developed as a part of an Honors Thesis by the author, Cameryn Tierno. TLC strives to provide its students with accessible yoga classes that are relaxing and rejuvenating. TLC’s staff and environment fosters relaxation and acceptance, while also offering practical stress-relieving techniques that are beneficial to all. The report presents the various methodologies and tools used for developing the business model and states the individual development plan for Cameryn Tierno as a yoga instructor and business woman before embarking on the journey of becoming a business owner. The report is concluded with Cameryn’s personal reflection of her experience completing this project.
  • The Effect Of Foam Rolling On Pulse Wave Velocity

    D'Amico, Anthony (2018-01-01)
    Introduction: This thesis is part of a larger study on the effect of foam rolling on several variables. This thesis specifically discusses the effect of foam rolling on pulse wave velocity. Foam rolling is becoming an increasingly popular form of self-myofascial release, which may have an effect on autonomic function. Pulse wave velocity is a measure of arterial stiffness, which can indicate the possibility of a cardiovascular event to occur. Arterial stiffness is affected by autonomic function. Foam rolling may be able to affect arterial stiffness via the autonomic nervous system. The purpose of this study is to determine if foam rolling has an effect on pulse wave velocity, a measure of arterial stiffness. Methods: There were 40 participants, both male and female, randomly placed in either the foam rolling condition (FR) or control condition (CON). Pulse wave velocity was measured in both conditions once each day for eight days. Those in the foam rolling condition foam rolled the quadriceps, hamstrings, gastrocnemius, medial thigh, iliotibial band, and gluteus each for 60 seconds per leg every day after pulse wave velocity measures were taken. A two-tailed Mann Whitney U test was used to compare the change from the baseline area under the curve between FR and CON. Results: The results concluded that there was no significant difference in pulse wave velocity measures between the foam rolling and control conditions (p > 0.05). Discussion: This research suggests that foam rolling does not influence pulse wave velocity 24 hours after a bout of foam rolling. Further research is necessary to determine the amount of time necessary to see an effect on pulse wave velocity.
  • Exploring Differences In Job Satisfaction Among Nurses In Union And Non-Union Work Settings

    Frost, Marion (2018-01-01)
    This research addresses the ever growing problem of job dissatisfaction and job burnout among nurses. Job burnout is a state of “physical, emotional or mental exhaustion combined with doubts about one’s competence and the value of one’s work” (Mayo Clinic, 2015). Job burnout has negative impacts on the health and wellbeing of the nurse, as well as his or her patients. Policies and regulations can vary depending on the union status of the establishment where the nurse is employed. A union is an association made up of a group of individuals sharing a common purpose. Staffing ratios, salary, benefits and job stability can all be seen to vary within different facilities depending on their union status. There are both positives and negatives to each union and non-union facility. This research will explore these topics in order to see if any correlation among the nurse’s job dissatisfaction and union status exist. A cross-sectional electronic survey was sent out to Salem State University School of Nursing alumni. Registered Nurses (RN) participating were asked to complete a survey containing demographic information, nursing specific questions, questions regarding union status and a modified Burnout Inventory Risk questionnaire. The dichotomous outcome variable will be union versus non-union work settings. Due to a lack of research on this topic in the United States, this research will be a positive contribution to nursing science. The purpose of this study is to better identify job burnout among the nursing profession as well as researching factors that could have an effect.