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  • Patriot and Loyalist Women of the American Revolution: How Feminine Figures Dealt with the Challenges of War and the Confines of Gender

    Louro, Michele (2015-12-01)
    When war struck out between American colonists and the British crown in 1775, the political and social climate of what would become the United States was forever changed. The colonists took up arms and created militias to battle against what they considered to be tyrannical British rule. In the colonies themselves, another battle was being waged between citizens that considered themselves American patriots and those whom remained loyal to the British rule. While the history of this struggle has been told countless times by examining the involvement of men, what was the role for the women who aligned themselves with each side during these wartime affairs? This paper aims to focus on a group of four women, who represented both sides of this internal colonial conflict. These four women are Mercy Otis Warren, Lucy Knox, Grace Growden Galloway, and Elizabeth Murray Inman. By examining these women's journals, diaries, and letters of correspondence, one can see that every action that these women took was defined in some aspect by their femininity and the home itself. They all took on two roles during the war, with their main role being that of a traditional 18th century colonial woman and the second, that of a person trying to survive a war torn environment. Their lives were focused around the home and although the war changed aspects of their lives, the importance of domesticity remained.
  • An Examination of Privateering as a Preventative Means of Modern Maritime Piracy

    Morrison, Dane (2015-05-01)
    The purpose of this paper is to identify the roles and legal frameworks of modern privateers to establish that they provide an effective means of preventing maritime piracy. This paper is organized in a manner that examines the roles of pirates and privateers in the past and present, in an attempt to answer relevant questions that currently hinder the usage of private navies in the near future. Are the methods currently in place to hinder the usage of private navies in the near future. Are the methods currently in place to prevent piracy effective? Have privateers been effective in the past? If so, how can they be implemented to deescalate the maritime pirates who are an increasingly violent threat to both human life and the global economy?
  • Those Loose Ladies: An Examination of Scandalous Puritan Women in Massachusetts From 1635 to 1700

    Morrison, Dane (2015-05-01)
    People today act like scandalous women are an invention of the twentieth century. For some reason it is widely believed that women were not promiscuous prior to the hippie days of the sixties or if they are being generous- the twenties. This idea could not be further from the truth because scandalous women have been part of American society since before it was even an “American” society. In fact, the Puritans who settled most of Massachusetts in the seventeenth century were incredibly scandalous people, even by today’s standards. This paper examines scandalous Puritan women in Massachusetts from 1635 to 1700 by looking at social, sexual, and religious crimes and sins. Puritan women have been ignored for most of our history, and it was the goal of this paper to share their stories and dispel the myths and stereotypes surrounding them, while establishing a beginning of female scandal in Massachusetts and the United States.
  • Division! The Crisis of the Commonwealth in Beverly's Civil War

    Seger, Donna; Swindell, Matthew G. (2021-05-01)
    In the 1880s, the town of Beverly, Massachusetts, was shaken to its core by a movement to divide the town and secure the independence of its wealthy Beverly Farms village. Soon, this municipal civil war threatened to thrust the Commonwealth of Massachusetts into political scandal. This thesis delves into the local background and national context of the Beverly division movement before tracing its progression from opposition to a street railway extension in 1885 to its pivotal point of near success in 1887. In the process, the paper discusses how, through embodiment of class division issues and concern over the growing influence of money in politics during the American Gilded Age, an effort to divide Beverly in two became the crisis of the Commonwealth.
  • Feeding the Fire: How Public Perceptions During and After the Easter Rising Shaped the Irish Independence Movement

    Shea, Margo (2020-05-01)
    The Easter Rising of 1916 was an event taking place in Ireland as a precursor to the Irish War for Independence. Previous research of the Rising was focused on the contributions of social groups to this movement, supported by a large quantity of secondary sources. The new topic that is being explored has less literature based on its inquiry. The argument of this paper is that the individuals that made up the social groups as well as those effected by the Rising were the most integral pieces of this event to understand. The individuals within these groups, as well as the people they were connected with, were fundamental in shifting the tide of public opinion in response to the consequences leadership faced following the Rising. This statement is informed by the primary sources that were considered. For this paper the research was conducted using primary source letters. By looking at personal correspondence between prisoners arrested for their acts during the Rising and their families, as well as letters between acquaintances, one is able to view what the society may have looked and felt like to the everyday people of Ireland. This paper uses these letters to guide readers with an understanding of the Rising in the greater context of the Irish War for Independence, granting greater insight into the change in public opinion from before the Rising to the differences displayed within the correspondence in the following months.
  • Fauxplay into Fluency: Queer Musings of a Nascent Bilinguist

    Dávila Gonçalves, Michele (2014-05-17)
    This project is a chapbook-size composition of original poems in both English and Spanish. It aims to link poetry between distinct lingual and literary traditions in a novel way without the use of translation. Among the themes treated are queer identities, the feminine and masculine, gay culture and sexual development, aspects of love, bilingualism effects, and linguistic interpretation. Also my poetic discourse deals with the dualism of realistic depiction and metaphorical allusion. The narrative weaves between two journeys. The first is of my struggle through rape, abuse and resilience, and the necessity to create order and contextualize my experiences. The second emerges from the need for definition, my story and I, through the affectation and modulation of my native language, English, and my second language, Spanish. As these interweave, the narrative becomes a testament to the catharsis of art, the mutual nature of language and identity, and what it means to be a queer kid in life.
  • The Lowell Mill Girls: The Cost Of Academic Access For Women In Antebellum New England

    Seger, Donna (2019-05-01)
    The antebellum period in American history began at the end of the War of 1812, and lasted till the outbreak of the Civil War. This was a time of growth for the new country of the United States of America, and largely coincided with the industrial revolution, which spanned the 18th and 19th centuries. The 1830s through the 1860s was a time which saw the rise of industrial labor in America, and the instillation of cotton and textile mills. As cities began to crop up around industrial centers, typically built along waterways and canals, new societies were quickly formed. In the case Lowell Massachusetts, the mills were largely operated by women. These operatives, who would become known as the Lowell Mill Girls, formed their own society rooted in New England’s self-improvement ideology. With the absence of men from their daily lives, these women were able to exist in a city beyond the confines of their own home and domestic endeavors. Seizing access to literature and creating opportunities for their own academic advancement, the women of Lowell thrived in their own community, despite the sacrifices it cost them.
  • Kathleen Clarke: Connecting the Competing Definitions of Women's Identity in Irish Nationalism

    Shea, Margo (2014-05-17)
    The modern nationalist movement (1916-1936) presented a contradiction for Irish women. On the one hand, they were being called to perform their responsibilities as citizens by extending their patriotism outside the home and taking a more active role in the fate of their country. On the other, Irish nationalism relied heavily on tradition; women were generally seen as the keepers of that tradition. Nationalist women struggled to respond to the competing responsibilities of their traditional domestic role and the emerging roles as citizens in a new nation. This paper examines Kathleen Clarke as a case study in how nationalist Irishwomen balanced their responsibilities as citizens in the new nation with their traditional roles as wives and mothers. Kathleen Clarke was the wife of one of the executed leaders of the Easter Rising and the sister of another. She was very involved in the nationalist movement and in Irish politics. After the Rising, she was left as a single mother of three small boys while also managing a fund for the dependents of imprisoned rebels. She eventually became a senator and then the first female Lord Mayor of Dublin. In her struggles to balance responsibilities in both the domestic and public spheres of her life, Kathleen Clarke embodied the ways that the new nation simultaneously created and restricted personal, cultural and political opportunities for women in Ireland after independence.
  • The Columbus Phenomenon: Prejudice And American Identity

    Kyrou, Alexandros (2018-12-01)
    For over 200 years, Columbus has been imbedded in American history and idealization. The mythology of Christopher Columbus in the United States has skewed public perspective, which is demonstrated by the disconnection between Columbus's widely accepted tales of heroism and the true consequences of his voyage. The explorer has also been part of an ongoing quest for an American identity, spurred on and continually reshaped by the question, “what is an American?” To understand such a phenomenon, this paper examines how Columbus has been added and amended to the United States' national narrative, from the eve of the American Revolution, to the era of Manifest Destiny, to the 1992 quincentennial of his voyage, and right up to his present day status. To address the emerging and diverging narratives of Columbus's legacy, the role of immigration and influence of Italians and Catholics in the United States, as well as the U.S. Treatment of Native Americans, and how these ideals have been spread by individuals, media, and educational systems, are examined. In conclusion of this research, the Columbus mythology can be cited as one of the roots of racial tension inherent in American society, and is one of the moral and conceptual ideas behind the colonial actions the United States has taken both at home and abroad up until the present. The Columbus mythology will continue to play this role unless pro-colonial, Eurocentric, and white supremacist views can be maintained through mainstream government institutions.
  • “Is The End Game All The Same?”: Analyzing The Importance Of German Schools And The Hitler Youth Under The Third Reich

    Seger, Donna (2018-01-01)
    Was the German public education system or the Hitler Youth more influential in the indoctrination of children in Nazi Germany? The German school system promoted a rhetoric built upon a Nazi ideological framework, with the end goal of having children passively think within that framework. In contrast, the Hitler Youth emphasized physical training and militarization as a critical component of the indoctrination process. Ultimately, both proved vital in the success of Nazi Germany’s re-education program and allowed for the full integration of youth into the Nazi State.
  • Sexual Violence As A Crime Against Humanity As Seen In The Indian Partition Of 1947

    Seger, Donna (2018-01-01)
    This research project looks into the nature of violence of the Indian Partition of 1947. The goal in this work is to place sexual violence towards women in this particular moment in history into a global context through applying international law to the violent acts committed by citizens of both India and Pakistan, as well as comparing it to other ethnic conflicts of history. This history has only recently become relevant, alongside the feminist movement of the 1990’s with oral historians such as Kamla Patel and Urvashi Butalia. Upon analyzing memoirs, newspapers, official government documentation from social workers, as well as oral histories, it is clear a crime against humanity occurred in the South Asian subcontinent in 1947; however, there has been little action taken by these states’ governments to memorialize these women, aid them, or punish their attackers. This research is an attempt to remember these women and uncover the true extent of the violence they faced.
  • The Harlem Renaissance

    Wilson, Jamie (2018-01-01)
    the spring of 2017, I was approached by a professor to join him in a writing project that will be published in 2019. The project is a volume called: 50 Events that Shaped African American History. My contribution to this project is a chapter on the Harlem Renaissance. The Harlem Renaissance took place between 1920 and 1930. Once the decade passed, the Harlem Renaissance ended as quickly as it had begun. Using primary and secondary sources, I researched and learned about the various themes within the Harlem Renaissance. Such themes include: politics, literature, music, and black identity and culture. I had to write a chronology, a narrative, two biographies, and two sidebars. One biography is about Langston Hughes, and the other, James Weldon Johnson. The one side-bar comments on the concept of “The New Negro” and the other, comments on the Harlem Riot of 1935 and how that symbolized the end of the Harlem Renaissance. The goal of this project was to write an unbiased view of the Harlem Renaissance. I encountered the arguments, victories, and defeats of the Harlem Renaissance. Writing about the Harlem Renaissance also caused me to ask questions. One question was: “Was the Harlem Renaissance a success?” I intend to share what this writing experience has taught me and also hope to offer my own take on the questions offered above, and help to start an educated conversation of an influential moment in African American History.
  • An Analysis Of The Motives Of The British Parliamentary Members, Edmund Burle, Isaac Barré, And Charles James Fox, Who Supported The American Colonists During The American Revolution

    Morrison, Dane (2016-12-01)
    When most people think of the American Revolution, they think of the rebellion by the American colonies to break away from the Parliamentary tyranny happening in the British Government through the taxation policies enforced without the colonists’ representation in Parliament. Many people do not realize that across the sea where the tyranny was coming from, there were also members in Parliament fighting against the taxation policies. These members, called the “Americanists,” were mostly members of the House of Commons. Among their most eminent members were Edmund Burke, Isaac Barré, and Charles James Fox. This thesis analyzed Burke, Barré, and Fox’s motivations and role in Parliament using a variety of both primary and secondary sources including Parliamentary debates, letters, and research by other scholars. The main finding was that each member focused on the principle of the tax and the illegal actions Parliament was taking against the colonies. Each member wanted to bring peace between the Empire and colonies again, restoring the balance that revolved around trade and economic purposes. Parliament was warned by these members that the colonies would keep rebelling and eventually try to break away from the Empire, something the Empire could not afford to lose. Overall, The Americanists, not widely recognized, were essentially proponents of the American Revolution across the sea where the tyranny was coming from, contributing to the overall fight for American liberties and freedom.
  • A Study of Fidel Castro: Motives Behind the Cuban Revolutionary

    Louro, Michele (2016-05-01)
    Fidel Castro was dictator of Cuba during the years of 1959 up until 2008. He took power after the Cuban Revolution. He is a complicated character in history at best, with most of the world having differing views about his leadership style and political agenda. The great majority opinion of the former Cuban dictator in the United States is one that is unfavorable and negative, often placing Castro in a harsh category that has held the names of Hitler, Stalin, and Mussolini. Yet outside of the United States view point, Castro has been given praise for being a strong, positive, and indeed beneficial leader to Cuba. A majority of those citizens in Cuba during the revolution supported Castro in his rise to control and power. He has been seen as a savior in their country, freeing them from the former leader Fulgencio Batista. Across the world, he has become a hero and inspiration for many of the poor through his revolution and reform in Cuba. These variations in opinion of Fidel Castro prompted a question to explore what his true intentions were for his country of Cuba and its people. What were his motives for the revolution, which may influence whether he deserves the praise or the criticism which he has been granted to him for many years across the world. What did Castro hope to gain through the Cuban Revolution and did he achieve what he set out to accomplish through his leadership and power? Were his motivations for gaining complete control of his country? Were they for beneficial reasons, or did he have a more sinister agenda for taking total control? Did he see himself as a hero and champion for his people? Did he see himself as acting in the best interests of the Cuban people? Through information from his speeches, letters, and interviews during his reign, the evidence yields an answer that Castro is indeed a different beast than those of Hitler and Stalin. His motivations were for the best interests of his people and country. Though he does not do in favor of the United States, he has been a beneficial leader to those who need him to be "the people of Cuba."
  • The Exodus From Andover: Migration Case Studies, 1700-1750

    Baker, Emerson; Chapman-Adisho, Annette; Austin, Brad (2014-12-01)
    This thesis begins by examining the work of Philip Greven in his book Four Generations, which is about the early settlement of Andover, Massachusetts. In Four Generations, Greven argues that a land shortage forced the third and fourth generations to migrate away from the town and seek their fortunes in the wilderness. The focus of this thesis develops into a consideration of the settlement patterns and the prosperity of the third generation who chose to leave Andover, Massachusetts, those who struck out into the wilderness of Windham County, Connecticut. What happened to this pioneering migratory generation of the early 18th-century? Do the economic and social patterns found in Connecticut replicate patterns found in the original settlement patterns of early Massachusetts towns? And even more importantly, this thesis asks who were these migrants? These questions are answered by examining vital records in Massachusetts and Connecticut. In addition, deed and probate records in both states have been reviewed as well. From the information and evidence gleaned from these records, biographical sketches of five migrants and their families were created to help us understand the relative success or failure of their migratory experience.
  • The Burning Question: Early U.S. Radiology and X-Ray Burns, 1896-1904

    Chomsky, Avi (2016-01-01)
    Early radiologists experienced occupational injuries that they called x-ray burns. Between 1896 and 1904, early U.S. radiologists debated the cause of these injuries. Using the American X-Ray Journal, I identify at least half a dozen competing theories. Notably, early U.S. radiologists seemed to resist the conclusion that their injuries were directly caused by exposure to x-rays. I argue that the early U.S. radiologists demonstrated vocational bias against concluding that the technology around which they were forging a new discipline was inherently dangerous. I also argue that this bias was left unchecked by a dearth of conclusive evidence that x-ray burns were directly caused by exposure to x-rays.
  • From Paradise to Plantation: Environmental Change in 17th Century Barbados

    Chomsky, Avi (2015-08-01)
    This paper examines the ways in which the environment of Barbados was altered after the founding of an English colony on the island in 1627. The rate and manner of change is addressed, as well as the ecology of the island before English colonization. Before English occupation, Barbados was primarily covered in thick tropical rainforest, and had no human population. Within several decades of settlement, the island was almost exclusively covered in sugar cane plantations, and supported a dense human population. The paper also looks at the consequences of environmental alteration. The change to a plantation ecology made many islanders wealthy and powerful, and made Barbados a major player in the world economy. But the changes made to the island ecosystem also impacted the health and mortality of the inhabitants, the economic growth of the colony, the prevalence of food shortages, and the heavy reliance on slave labor from Africa. Many of these consequences continued even after the 17th century, and some can be seen today.
  • The Limits of Jawaharlal Nehru's Asian Internationalism and Sino-Indian Relations, 1949-1959

    Louro, Michele (2015-01-01)
    This paper seeks to provide the genesis of the decline of Jawaharlal Nehru's friendly relations with China and of his foreign policy doctrine of Asian Internationalism by examining two key moments: the Panchsheel Treaty of 1954 and the Bandung Conference of 1955. Paradoxically, these international events sowed the seeds from which Nehru's non-aligned movement would arise. Nehru cast away his cherished vision of Asian solidarity, succumbing to the nationalistic currents of state building and the geopolitical trap of the Cold War.