Now showing items 21-38 of 38

    • Music To Our Ears: Cochlear Hair Cell Action Upon Human Perception Of Music

      Pariser, Harry; Soffron, Cassandra (2018-01-01)
      Every day we are inundated with sounds, and we are able to separate noises into language, information, or music. As humans, we have many adaptive auditory features that contribute to our ability to create and understand music. This study is a review of current literature that explores our comprehension and expression of music. The inner structures, and their functions of the inner ear are fundamental to the human perception of music. First, the broad structures and functions of the ear and specifically the inner ear will be addressed. The gross anatomy of the ear will be discussed to understand the complex structures that make hearing possible. The remainder of this review will focus on the specific cellular complexes that enable sound perception within the ear. It is these structures that help translate vibrations produced by musical means, such as vocals and instrumentals, into sounds that we interpret as music. This study will explain how human interpretation of sound originates from the structures and functions of the ear on a molecular level, especially the action of cochlear hair cells.
    • CTE And The Effects Of Multiple Concussions On College Athletes

      Mercer, David; Cote, Hunter (2018-01-01)
      The purpose of this research was to determine if signs and symptoms of Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE) could be detected in college athletes who have suffered multiple concussions. College athletes are likely to be at an increased risk of suffering a concussion, due to the high-impact trauma that is often seen in contact sports. This question was explored through the use of a survey, cognitive test, known as the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), and the Beck Depression Inventory. The questions on the survey included necessary background information (i.e. age and sex), as well as more personal information including; number of concussions and organized sports played. The Beck depression inventory quantified the research subject’s level of depression, which is associated with CTE. The Mini Mental State Examination is another clinical test used primarily with Alzheimer’s disease patients to examine cognitive degeneration. We found no notable differences in cognition between members of the control group and members of the experimental group. However, the results of the Beck Depression Inventory displayed a significant difference between the two groups. The average score for the control group was a 5.5, which is considered normal, whereas, the average score of the experimental group was an 18, which would be considered borderline clinical depression. This would suggest that college athletes who have suffered multiple concussions may be more likely to be diagnosed with clinical depression, and some signs of CTE may be detectible in college athletes.
    • Myopia Control: Methods To Slow The Progression Of Childhood Myopia

      Scottgale, Gwen; Bouchard, Brian (2018-01-01)
      Myopia is one of the most common eye diseases that affect the U.S. and the world. Myopia, or nearsightedness, is a condition of the eye in which light focuses in front of the retina rather than on the retina. Recent studies have shown that myopia is a combination of both genetic and environmental factors. Myopia has increased dramatically in children due to increased near work and decreased time outdoors. As the disease has become increasingly more common, new treatments have been developed to manage and stop the progression of it. This review looks at recent literature and clinical studies to determine what works for myopia control. Low dose atropine and pirenzepine proved to be effective but is rarely used due to the multitude of side effects. Treatments such as undercorrection, bifocals, progressive lenses, orthokeratology contacts, and multifocal contacts were evaluated for effectiveness, safety, and practicality. The results of these studies showed that undercorrection was either harmful or had no effect on myopia progression. Bifocals and progressive corrective lenses showed positive results in some studies but were ineffective in others. Orthokeratology proved to be effective in slowing myopia progression, but often resulted in infections. Increased time outdoors and light exposure decreases the risk of developing myopia, but not slowing its progression. Multifocal contact lenses were the most effective and safest intervention as they slowed myopia progression by nearly 50% when compared to the control group.
    • An Examination Of Marine Fouling Organisms' Presence On Varying Substrates In A New England Marina

      Fregeau, Mark; Urh, Michelle (2017-04-01)
      Marine fouling communities are comprised of various marine organisms that begin life as planktonic larvae before attaching to submerged surfaces. The purpose of this study was to develop an understanding of the substrate preferences of marine organisms that commonly foul New England marinas. Two sets of four 14x14cm fouling plates were constructed out of one of four materials: polyvinyl chloride (PVC), fiberglass, concrete or slate. These plates were suspended off a floating dock at 1 and 2 meters below the surface of the water. The 16 plates were placed at the Boston Harbor Shipyard and Marina in East Boston, MA, on 17 July 2016 and photographed every two weeks until 4 December 2016 for a total of 20 weeks. Individual organisms were counted and the percent cover calculated for colonial species to examine what settled and general abundance. It was found that the most common fouling organisms were Ciona intestinalis, Molgula sp., and Botrylloides violaceus. Ascidiella aspersa and Botryllus schlosseri were also present. The two most common solitary species present on all plate materials were C. intestinalis and Molgula sp. with B. violaceus being the most common colonial species. C. intestinalis showed a preference for the concrete plates over the other available surfaces. B. violaceus was most common on the slate plates. All colonial ascidians were observed growing on other organisms showing their involvement in secondary settlement. Understanding the substrate preference of these species develops a baseline for further research and the potential to control the spread of invasive species naturally.
    • Bacterial Attachment To Microspheres

      Alachi, Peter; Schreiner, Sheila; Troisi, Kathleen (2017-05-01)
      Microspheres are small beads that average around 875 μm in diameter and are found in popular facial soaps and toothpastes. They are popular with consumers which raises the concern over how they impact the environment after they have been used. Our data suggests that bacteria were able to attach to the microspheres and crevices within. But can be detached when subjected to different rates of saline solution washes. Since these microspheres can stay intact in water, there are many concerns over their impacts on marine and freshwater life and environments.
    • The Effect Of Macroplastic Debris On Marine Vertebrates

      Young, Alan; Rodrigue, Brooke (2017-03-01)
      Plastic pollution causes mortality of marine vertebrates, endangers populations, and affects entire ecosystems. This literature review examines the effects of macroplastic on marine animals. Through scholarly databases, the author researched how plastic negatively impacts ecosystems and marine vertebrates. The major themes (e.g. toxicity, hazardous ingestion or entanglement) of forty-eight sources were analyzed or evaluated in this paper. Plastic pollution is a major phenomenon that is affecting the health of the marine environment. Anthropogenic debris makes its way around the world via ocean currents and can affect coastal and oceanic animals. Macroplastics are plastics larger than 0.5 mm and are visible to the naked eye. Organisms such as marine mammals, seabirds, and fish are affected by macroplastics through ingestion, entanglement, or direct contact generally because plastics can contain many toxic additives. Solutions to plastic pollution effects on marine vertebrates include sustainable fishing practices and reduction/management of waste.
    • The Role Of T Regulatory Cells In Allergy And Autoimmune Disease And Potential Therapeutic Options

      Scottgale, Gwen; Burroughs, Taylor (2017-04-01)
      T regulatory cells are part of the immune system and act to control and suppress immune responses. A small population or a population of T regulatory cells with impaired function has been associated with allergic and autoimmune diseases. Without suppression from these cells, immune dysfunction can become prevalent and lead to disease. Previous studies have shown that exposure to microbes and parasites such as Helminths can boost the T regulatory cell population. In developed countries, where microbial and parasitic exposure is diminished, allergies and autoimmune disorders are on the rise. In this review, scholarly articles and recent clinical trials were examined to see what therapies are currently being tested using T regulatory cells. One of the most favorable therapies is adoptive transfer of T regulatory cells. This therapy has had promising results in the early stages. Patients who received adoptive transfer therapy have had more alleviation of their disease than those in the control groups who received traditional treatment. Future studies need to be done to come to clear conclusions about the effectiveness of adoptive transfer, which would include a larger sample size of patients and longer follow up periods after therapy. By improving our understanding of adoptive transfer as a treatment, patients with these disorders can hopefully have an improved quality of life in the future.
    • Effect Of Patient Illness On Young Adult Family Members

      Case, Susan; Chigas, Samantha (2017-05-01)
      The full impact of disease on a patient’s life and on immediate family is often unseen or unknown. Salem State students were surveyed on how family members’ ailments make them feel emotionally and affect family relationships and home life. Results indicate that Salem State students with illness in their immediate family have close relationships with family members, feel negatively about familial illness and do not take on family responsibilities other than household chores. Support within the family is adequate for coping with illness, though outside support could be beneficial in the expression of fears and concerns or suppressing negative emotions associated with familial illness.
    • Fun, Fit, Fabulous Fitness Plan: A Service Project Fostering Interactive and Fun Learning of Middle School Health and Wellness Topics

      Scottgale, Gwen; Sowle, Angela (2016-05-01)
      This thesis was a service project, which took place at Girls Incorporated in Lynn, Ma. The hypothesis was that after a 10-week duration, 6th grade girls would have had fun learning new things about health and wellness that they had not known before. During the months of October through December of 2015, I taught a program that I had designed for a group of 6th grade girls for their afternoon Odyssey Programs. The girls in both of my two classes spent an hour once a week doing activities, that were both interactive, informative, and easily practiced at home. The program covered such topics as eating balanced meals, being properly hydrated, staying active using fun exercise techniques, and exploring new activities that benefit the mind and body. The evaluation was a survey given before and after the program, measuring a foundation of the knowledge the girls had already had before the beginning of the program as compared to after. The after results showed that the girls had learned new things regarding their health. Because the program was asked to return for a second semester of teaching, it can also be assumed that the pilot program was also successful in terms of excitement and fun. The goal of creating a fun and informative workout program focused on girls at an age of easy influence was achieved by the data supporting the idea that after 10 weeks of class, the girls learned better more appropriate ways to remain healthy into their teen years.
    • Investigation of the Phylogenetic Relationships Among Subspecies of Cercyonis Pegala (Nymphalidae: Satyrinae)

      Atkinson, Lynn; Lopez, Stephanie Carolina (2016-05-01)
      The common wood-nymph, Cercyonis pegala, is a North American butterfly found throughout the United States, northern Mexico, and southern Canada. Cercyonis pegala agawamensis is a recently described subspecies that is differentiated from other subspecies of C. pegala based on habitat, behavior, and phenotype. A major defining characteristic is habitat, with C. pegala agawamensis found in salt marsh habitat, C. pegala maritima in coastal upland habitat, and C. pegala nephele in a northeastern upland habitat. The level of genetic differentiation between the subspecies is unknown; therefore, we investigated the phylogenetic relationships among C. pegala agawamensis, C. pegala nephele, and C. pegala maritime using the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene. COI is a 648 base-pair region that is used as a barcoding standard to help identify the relationships between species and subspecies. Eight mtDNA haplotypes were found among 31 samples of the three subspecies. The data show that C. pegala nephele is genetically different from C. pegala agawamensis and C. pegala maritima. However, there is no genetic differentiation between C. pegala maritima and C. pegala agawamensis. Small phenotypic differences used to identify samples sometimes placed subspecies in atypical habitats (for example, C. pegala maritima in salt marsh habitat). Therefore, there does not appear to be a genetic, morphological or habitat basis to justify separate subspecies status for C. pegala agawamensis.
    • Life History And Population Dynamics Of Green Crabs (Carcinus maenas)

      Young, Alan M.; Elliott, James A. (2019-12-31)
      Carcinus maenas (the “shore crab” or “European green crab”) is a very proficient invader (considered to be one of the world’s 100 worst invaders by the IUCN) due to its phenotypic plasticity, wide temperature and salinity tolerance, and an extensive omnivorous diet. Native to Atlantic Europe, it has established two well-studied nonindigenous populations in the northwestern Atlantic and northeastern Pacific and less-studied populations in Australia, Argentina and South Africa. Green crabs are eurythermal and euryhaline as adults, but they are limited to temperate coastlines due to more restrictive temperature requirements for breeding and larval development. They cannot tolerate wave-swept open shores so are found in wave-protected sheltered bays, estuaries and harbors. Carcinus maenas has been the subject of numerous papers, with over 1000 published in the past decade. This review provides an up-to-date account of the current published information on the life history and population dynamics of this very important species, including genetic differentiation, habitat preferences, physical parameter tolerances, reproduction and larval development, sizes of crabs, densities of populations, sex ratios, ecosystem dynamics and ecological impacts in the various established global populations of green crabs.
    • Characterization Of A New ODA3 Allele, ODA3-6, Defective In Assembly Of The Outer Dynein Arm-Docking Complex In Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii

      Mosley, Matthew; Montes-Berrueta, Daniela; Hou, Yuqing; Yang, Fan; Scarbrough, Chasity; Witman, George B.; Wirschell, Maureen; Brown, Jason (2017-03-14)
      We have used an insertional mutagenesis approach to generate new C. reinhardtii motility mutants. Of 56 mutants isolated, one is a new allele at the ODA3 locus, called oda3-6. Similar to the previously characterized oda3 alleles, oda3-6 has a slow-jerky swimming phenotype and reduced swimming speed. The oda3-6 mutant fails to assemble the outer dynein arm motor and outer dynein arm—docking complex (ODA-DC) in the ciliary axoneme due to an insertion in the 5’ end of the DCC1 gene, which encodes the DC1 subunit of the ODA-DC. Transformation of oda3-6 with the wild-type DCC1 gene rescues the mutant swimming phenotype and restores assembly of the ODA-DC and the outer dynein arm in the cilium. This is the first oda3 mutant to be characterized at the molecular level and is likely to be very useful for further analysis of DC1 function.
    • Aquaculture And Its Growing Importance

      Maney, Ted (2017-02-22)
      This is the PowerPoint slide deck shown by Ted Maney during his 60-minute presentation at Greenbelt's "State of Our Oceans" Lecture and Film Series on February 22, 2017 at the Parker River National Wildlife Refuge Auditorium in Newburyport, Massachusetts. It has specific emphasis on what aquaculture is and how it works, why it is becoming increasingly important, and how it can help rehabilitate wild fish populations. Learn about the variety of fish species that can are being aquacultured, as well as how this process is prevalent in New England and Massachusetts. Aquaculture is becoming more well-known and is starting to play a bigger role in the fishing industry. The goal of this event was for people to gain a better understanding of the process of aquaculture its impact on the harvest of fish, the pros and cons associated with aquaculture, and to give people a sense of hope that we can make a difference in helping to ensure healthier fish populations for future generations.
    • The 'Ideal' Climate Change Ph.D. Program

      Drobot, Sheldon D.; Porinchu, David F.; Arzayus, Krisa M.; Barber, Valerie A.; Smith, L. Micaela; Warren, Jeff M.; Delissio, Lisa (2003-01-01)
      The training of the next generation of climate-change researchers is of utmost importance as climate change and its associated impacts take on increasing local, regional, and global relevance. This report seeks to address this issue by highlighting aspects of a successful climate-change Ph.D. program; a program which seeks to balance traditional disciplinary training with exposure to the broader, interdisciplinary climate-change community.
    • Analysis Of Rainfall Data From The Island Of Culebra, Puerto Rico Over A Period Spanning 1907-2007 In Light Of Climate Change Predictions

      Delissio, Lisa (2008-10-01)
      Under conditions of human-induced climate change, the Caribbean region is predicted to experience more frequent water shortages. To determine whether rainfall amounts on the island of Culebra have already begun to change, rainfall data spanning 100 years were assessed. Rainfall data had been collected at three different locations during three time periods that did not overlap. There was no evidence of change in annual rainfall amounts or the severity of dry seasons from 1907-2007. It appears that global climate change has not yet affected precipitation on this island, suggesting that current precipitation values represent a baseline that can be used to monitor the hydrologic state of this and climactically similar regions.
    • Exploring Art & Science In K-12 Education

      Delissio, Lisa (2016-06-27)
      Keynote speech/workshop on Art/Science integration in K12 Education at the Wadsworth Museum Summer Teacher Institute. The talk explores three main benefits of STEAM in K12 classrooms: Close Looking/Observation, Time on Task, and Returns to Creativity. Includes results from original research by Lisa Delissio and Rebecca Rohloff.
    • Assessing And Addressing Global Warming Impacts On The Culebra Archipelago

      Delissio, Lisa (2008-05-27)
      The climate change outlook for the small Caribbean island of Culebra. The primary text is in English. The supplemental text is translated into Spanish.
    • Characterization of Microplastic and Mesoplastic Debris in Sediments from Kamilo Beach and Kahuku Beach, Hawai'i

      Young, Alan M.; Elliott, James A. (2016-11-11)
      Sediment samples were collected from two Hawai'ian beaches, Kahuku Beach on O'ahu and Kamilo Beach on the Big Island of Hawai'i. A total of 48,988 large microplastic and small mesoplastic (0.5–8 mm) particles were handpicked from the samples and sorted into four size classes (0.5–1 mm, 1–2 mm, 2–4 mm, 4–8 mm) and nine color categories. For all sizes combined the most common plastic fragment color was white/transparent (71.8%) followed by blue (8.5%), green (7.5%), black/grey (7.3%), red/pink (2.6%), yellow (1.2%), orange (0.6%), brown (0.3%) and purple (0.2%). Color frequency distribution based on both numbers and mass of particles was not significantly different among the various size classes nor between the two beaches. White and black/grey resin pellets accounted for 11.3% of the particles collected from Kahuku Beach and 4.2% of the particles from Kamilo Beach. Plastic type based on Raman Spectrometer analysis of a small representative subsample indicated that most of the fragments were polyethylene and a few were polypropylene. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2016.11.009