Now showing items 21-40 of 353

    • Today, the Proclivities of Individual Rule: The Problem of the Supreme Court and How to Fix It

      Jackman, Jennifer; Belitsky, Christine (2023-05-01)
      Since 2016, the Supreme Court has become dominated by right-wing justices, nominated specifically by the Republican Party to ensure conservative political wins through the court system. These justices have been handing down partisan decisions from the nation's highest court, resulting in a legitimacy crisis and an erosion of our democracy. Expanding the number of justices on the Supreme Court is the most effective way of addressing this crisis as it is clearly within the powers of Congress and has a fair amount of support among congressional Democrats.
    • Guaranteed To Win: Optimal Strategies For Discrete Bidding Games

      Poitevin, Pedro; Brunet, Sophia (2023-05-01)
      Many of us are familiar with two player games, such as Tic-Tac-Toe or chess, where each player alternates taking turns. Players compete against each other, strategically making a move once it’s their turn. The goal of the game is simply to “win”, depending on the rules of the game. We can add an extra layer to these games that creates some mathematical questions. Instead of alternating turns, players are now “bidding” to make a move. Not only does this add more competition, strategy, and excitement to the game, but it also adds mathematical intricacies. We call these Richman games, studied by David Richman in the 1980s. In Richman games, players make a bid (or auction)[1] of a nonnegative number of chips to make a move. The player that bids the most plays their turn, and then “pays” their chips to the other player. By studying Richman games, this paper will explore the optimal bidding strategies to maximize game play. The goal of each player is to win the game - not have the most amount of chips. In order to win the game, players need to have bidding strategies to ensure they are making moves. The proportion of chips a player has in their possession at a certain point, or critical threshold, is crucial within bidding games. We will explore how to find the critical threshold for games, and how it optimizes a player’s chance of winning (also referred to as winning strategies). We will also dissect the use of the tie-breaking advantage when two players bid the game amount of chips. Through these strategies, we will explore a game of bidding Tug O’ War and applications to more extensive games, such as bidding Tic-Tac-Toe.
    • Using Remote Sensing and GIS to Identify Magmatic Strain Accommodation: The Case Study of Mt Marsabit, Kenya

      Mana, Sara; Muirhead, James; Van Hazinga, Cora (2023)
      Previous research has demonstrated that the morphology and linear arrays of extrusive volcanic features indicate the presence and orientations of the magmatic constructs that feed them. In extensional tectonic environments, like the East African Rift (EAR), trends of these subsurface dikes can be controlled by inherited lithospheric structures or by the direction of applied stress. Mapping extrusive volcanic features with remote sensing allows for detailed geo-spatial analysis that can reveal valuable data regarding the state of stress in the region or the presence of pre-existing fractures and other lithospheric structures. Mt Marsabit, Kenya (2.32°N, 37.97°E) is a basaltic shield volcano located on the eastern edge of the Turkana Depression in Northern Kenya. The Turkana Depression is a topographical low area of extensional deformation linking the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER) and the Kenya Rift, characterized by a very thin rifted lithosphere (50-60 km; Fishwick, 2010; Kounoudis et al., 2021). While there is typically a predominant north-south orientation of structural and volcanic features in the EAR, some features in east Turkana (e.g. the Dilo-Durkana, Mega, and Hurri Hills volcanic fields) demonstrate superficial NE-SW trends, oblique to the main rift trend. The monogenetic volcanic field situated on Mt Marsabit is no exception and hosts hundreds of tuff cones and maar craters exhibiting an apparent NE-SW trend. The cause of these trends is so far unknown. Here we present data from the mapping and analysis of extrusive volcanic features on Mt Marsabit in an effort to improve our understanding of the tectonic and structural controls on crustal magma transport in this off-axis region of rifting. Analysis of the morphology of these features is performed in ArcGIS Pro while alignments of these features are analyzed in MATLAB. Previously published geological maps are also examined. This volcanic field exhibits a strong northeast-southwest trend in both morphology and linear arrays. Similar trends are observed in other volcanic fields in the eastern extent of the Turkana Depression. The obliquely oriented dikes in these fields may be a result of a combination of controls: en-echelon deformation zones associated with a component of strike-slip deformation; and a rotation of the local stress field.
    • Smoke Follows Beauty

      Scrimgeour, J.D.; Wright, Heather (2023-05-01)
      “Smoke Follows Beauty” is a poetry collection reflecting childhood experiences in the US South with a positionality concretely in the present. With a concise style, the collection considers racial and class divisions by engaging with family conflict and personal memory.
    • Charlotte Nichols Saunders Horner, trailblazing botanist

      Delissio, Lisa; Hall, Lindsay (2023-05)
      While little known within today’s botanical community, Charlotte Nichols Saunders Horner (July 5, 1823 - July 18, 1906) was among the most highly accomplished American botanists of her time. Active during a fertile period for botany, this adventurous woman rose to become an expert on the plants of the Northeast United States and Colorado. She was one of only a handful of women in the Northeast United States to publish in scientific journals during this period, the first woman to give a scientific talk for the Massachusetts Horticultural Society which had been active for more than 50 years, and the first person to be awarded its silver medal for native plants. An active collector for longer than 30 years, more than 1300 of Horner’s herbarium specimens still exist and add value to more than a dozen scientific collections. Unusually for a woman of her time, she was paid for her expertise through her highly successful academic botanical supply business. Charlotte Horner’s contributions continue to influence science at an international scale.
    • The Effects of Police Killings on Mental Health of African American Individuals: A Review Paper

      Miller, Patrice; Jean, Gridania Christy (2022-12-01)
      The purpose of this review is to develop a better understanding of how current racial issues influence the mental health of minority groups. It covers the death of two individuals, Breonna Taylor and George Floyd, who were victims and killed by police violence in 2020. Within one week of George Floyd’s video being released, it was found that anxiety and depression among African Americans shot to higher rates than experienced by any other racial or ethnic group. Their deaths sparked a wave of civic upheaval aimed within African Americans communities across the country. Research shows that police violence negatively impacts the health of many minority groups. Information for this review was acquired through government publications and peer reviewed articles. Qualitative data was gathered by investigating comments made on these events on various social media platforms. The aim of this paper is to educate people on the impact of racism, police violence and injustice on African Americans lives.
    • Work/house

      O'Neil, January; Miraglia, Meghan (2022-11-01)
      Work/house is a hybrid creative-research project that explores the narratives of Irish workhouse pauper inmates during the Great Famine. The project takes on multiple forms: a chapbook printed by Salem State University, a longer manuscript draft, and a digital story told through the coding platform Twine. Research on Irish workhouses was conducted independently after partaking in a free, audio-visual tour of the former Kilkenny Union Workhouse site in July 2022, the writing happening in conjunction with research. The sixteen poems included in the chapbook (and the roughly forty poems in the manuscript, still a work-in-progress) incorporate Irish poetic forms, Irish mythology, and real narratives of pauper inmates who resided in the South Dublin and Kilkenny Union Workhouses. These inmates include Eliza Dalton, a young woman who arrived in the South Dublin workhouse at age nine, and incited uprisings with other workhouse girls; Jane Kane, who drifted in and out of that same South Dublin workhouse while working at her mother’s brothel; Thomas Kelly, a deaf and blind inmate living in the Kilkenny Union workhouse, whose death circumstances were extensively investigated by workhouse Guardians; and James Heam, who, at fourteen, appealed his unjust corporeal punishment. Other phenomena typical of the time – contraction of venereal diseases, infanticide, poverty and starvation – are referenced throughout the poems. Artistic license (such as the blurring of timelines) has been taken in the creation of themes such as hunger, reclamation of femininity and humanity in oppressive social structures, bodily autonomy, complex relationships to/with land and language, motherhood, and female friendship.
    • Overwatered Classes

      Carver, M.P.; Baumann, Rachel (2023-01-01)
      Have you ever wondered when you started stressing so much or when you lost your focus and began grieving what once was? I have found that is part of being human, and I believe it is time to explore those topics and discuss them openly to understand ourselves, and our youth, better. My chapbook, “Overwatered Classes” discusses the impact of stress on a student’s education and how a broken system can emphasize or overlook difficulties in mental health. By comparing the natural world to students, I hope to help readers who desire to understand their world and their community in a more personal way. An abundance of societal and scholarly stress and a shortage of resources leaves students overburdened, or overwatered, with expectations that aren’t their own. My aspiration for this project is to start a dialogue about the stigma of stress impacting human experiences. While writing about my own experiences in the education system, I analyzed which of my experiences are not singular, but scarily common among students. I hope this will help me and my colleagues be better educators in the future but the poetry is for a wider audience. This chapbook is written for anyone who is ready to confront topics considering traumatic experiences, grief, and common disabilities. Some of the heavy subject matter discusses the cycle of frustration or depression with a bleak outlook but I believe it can have a positive end. “Overwatered Classes” is written for most students, educators, and anyone who seeks to understand and support those having difficulty. Most of all it is for anyone who is fighting to understand their own battles, as I once was. You can be understood and deserve patience, if not from others than from yourself.
    • An Institute-Based Approach to OER in Digital Caribbean Studies

      Valens, Keja; Collins, Perry; Huet, Hélène; Taylor, Laurie; Mistretta, Brittany; Toombs, Hannah; Baksh, Anita; Dize, Nathan H.; Glenn-Callender, Juliet; Johnson, Ronald Angelo; et al. (ACRL, 2022)
      In May 2019, more than forty educators, scholars, and librarians came together for a week-long workshop to collaboratively explore the potential—and the limitations—of digital pedagogies within Caribbean Studies. Hosted by the University of Florida (UF) and the Digital Library of the Caribbean (dLOC), “Migration, Mobility, Sustainability: Caribbean Studies & Digital Humanities” delved into digital projects amplifying community narratives across the Caribbean diaspora, low-barrier tools to enable student-instructor co-creation, and efforts to subvert colonialist legacies as we build and describe digital collections. This face-to-face experience offered a rich starting point for a two-year institute that fostered virtual dialogue, course development, and publication of a contextualized selection of open educational resources (OER). With a multi-institutional, international group of participants working across the Caribbean and the United States, institute leaders took a flexible approach to topical coverage, schedule, and anticipated outcomes that invited individual perspectives and experience to shape the conversation. This approach drove the capacious framing of OER, continued in this chapter, simply as content available freely online and useful to teachers and students. Rather than attempting to normalize vocabulary or prescriptively define what might “count” as an OER, the institute broadly encouraged knowledge-sharing around access to digital collections, technology, and models for leveraging both in the classroom. Presentations on courses and projects served as boundary objects, offering common ground where participants could explore potential next steps and opportunities for collaboration from multiple vantage points. This chapter focuses on the institute as a case study for OER development that centers relationship-building, lived experience, empathy, and flexibility as foundational principles, grounded in feminist approaches to digital pedagogy. Attention to social justice permeates this work, both in amplifying Caribbean voices across the diaspora and in leveraging approaches in the digital humanities (DH) that call on students to challenge reductive or colonialist perspectives. These values mirror those embodied by participants’ own research and teaching, and the following sections draw heavily on the publicly available reflections, syllabi, assignments, and other materials they contributed.
    • French Canadian Folktales

      Gross, Benjamin; Blood, Elizabeth; Stickney, Samantha (2022-05-01)
      Study something you care about, learn everything you can, and do your best work. Whether your passion is in mathematics, dance, or architecture, I’ve always been a firm believer that choosing to study something you love will make your university days immeasurably more fulfilling. My thesis titled “French Canadian Folktales” is a testament to this philosophy, as it is a marriage of the invaluable passions I’ve accrued during my time as a student: printmaking and French. My goal for this thesis was to create a highly collaborative experience that incorporates these two passions in a way that showcases both my translation and my studio time. Therefore, the following is the result of two semesters’ work crafting print illustrations under my thesis advisor, Professor Benjamin Gross. The translations were completed over three years with Professor Elizabeth Blood, alongside nine students of French: Kristen Burgess, Bayron Contreras, Patrick Delva, Sage Grant, Samantha Gurney, Raymond Harris, Rachael Kuper, Anna Snyder, and myself. The result is a collection of fifteen folktales from 19th century Québécois writers that undergraduate students and faculty have translated from French into English. All folktales have been assembled into a book and accompanied by my original prints. Through this project, may you not only find these stories amusing but also be able to experience the culture and literature of folktales from French-speaking Québec. Bonne lecture!
    • Kathrine Thomas Photography: A Business Rebrand

      Vincent, Cindy; Thomas, Kathrine (2022-05-01)
      When you think of a company, you most likely picture their logo in your head. Having a recognizable brand is something that sets a business apart from others. This thesis focuses on rebranding my business, Kathrine Thomas Photography in order to appear more appealing and cohesive. This thesis examines the successes, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats my business faces with a SWOT analysis, and identifies current communication tactics and evaluates market competition in a situation analysis. This study also incorporates a survey of current clients to understand preferred communication modalities. As a result of this research, my website is now easier to navigate and informs potential clients about what it is like to work with me. I also created a brand identity kit that includes a color palette and typefaces to serve as a guide for my business. Overall, this research serves as a resource for small business owners in rebranding their own business. Website can be found at:
    • Don't Tread On Climate Policy: American Nationalism And U.S. Climate Policy

      Silvern, Steven; Wolongevicz, Joey (2022-05-01)
      The United States has a turbulent relationship with both domestic and international climate change policy, fueled by American nationalism. While there are robust fields of research on both nationalism and climate policy separately, research on connections between the two has only just begun in the past few years. When that scope is further narrowed to specifically American nationalism and U.S. climate policy, the field becomes even more sparse. I argue that this void in the conversation is a significant grey area that gives anti-climate actors particular power in determining the fate of U.S. climate policy. Utilizing messaging that plays to the political hegemony of American nationalism has enabled anti-climate actors to kill, weaken, or delay indefinitely a number of important pieces of climate policy. In this paper I will compare and contrast four such policies: the Kyoto Protocol, the American Clean Energy and Security Act (cap and trade), The Clean Power Plan, and The Paris Agreement. I will identify a thread of common themes through each policy, including organized American nationalists, anti-globalism nationalist messaging, American nationalism in electoral politics, mistrust of the United Nations, and examples of American exceptionalism and isolationism. In an age where we have dwindling time to mitigate the worst effects of the climate crisis, understanding the systemic role ideologies like American nationalism play in disrupting climate policy is crucial.
    • A Literature Review Of Alternative Approaches To Escape Extinction In Feeding Protocols

      Gonsalves, Joanna; Setzer, Olivia (2022-05-01)
      This literature review investigated different treatment packages for feeding protocols in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A literature review was conducted on case studies that were conducted on children under the age of eighteen with at least one problem behavior related to feeding. The case studies included were peer-reviewed and published in a journal article in the past twelve years. The review considered a set of variables for each study that included: the number of children who were treated, the effectiveness of the treatment, consistency of results between participants, consistency of results across studies, and follow up treatment effectiveness. Based on the literature reviewed, the results indicated there was no single treatment package that consistently demonstrates a decrease in inappropriate mealtime behavior and an increase in acceptable mealtime behavior. High probability sequences, noncontingent reinforcement, behavioral skills training, least-to-most prompting, and lag schedules of reinforcement were at least moderately effective at decreasing inappropriate mealtime behavior and increasing appropriate mealtime behavior without using escape extinction.
    • The Intersection Of The Head And The Heart: A Playwright’s Journey In Logic And Emotion

      Cunningham, William; Rossmeisl, Stephanie (2022-05-01)
      Logic and emotion are often seen as antithetical. In most people’s minds, the former connects to the scientific, the mathematical, the intellectual, the objective, and the tangible, while the latter relates to the artistic, the ethical, the subjective, the spiritual, and the intangible. In my process journal, I use my original full-length play, The Intersection of The Head and The Heart, as a means to explore these human qualities’ roles in arguably theatre’s foremost topic of examination: the shared human experience. This ultimately examines whether or not an effective intersection between the two even exists. A detailed breakdown and analysis of the play, as well as commentary on my sources of inspiration, techniques, and overall process from writing to performance, demonstrates how the intersection can be examined, both during the process and in the finished product. Finally, I conclude with my personal, academic, and artistic growth over the years. Particular consideration is given to how this is all a greater reflection of my own life experiences.
    • Betting Just Got Easier: The Power Of Machine Learning And Making Predictions

      Nafa, Fatema; Ngandjui, Johnson (2022-05-01)
      There comes a time in your life when you have endeavored to place a wager, whether minuscule or astronomically immense the goal is to victoriously triumph. What if you knew the chances of you winning? In this project, I analyzed The Big Five European soccer leagues data where I predict the probability of what team will win using various machine learning techniques while answering questions to maximize the accuracy of my prediction. The project drives away from the rigorous concepts of numbers, with a visual representation of the analytics. This breaks away from the extensive data into a more conceptualized aspect of betting. Many Bettors bet based on favorites, is that a valid way to place a bet? The first phase of this project is creating a descriptive analysis for understanding the data, the second phase is diving into support vector machines, random forest, and Xgboost to organize data elements and standardize how the data elements relate to one another to answer questions pertaining to wager making. I will make use of PySpark to show distinction between supervised learning models. The complex components will follow a sequential design metric to understand correctly how to maximize your bet. The results will consist of a prototype web application with a descriptive analysis of my findings, this includes betting prediction on my data. Users will get a deep understanding on why the results presented as they did.
    • An Investigation Into The Role Of Gamma Oscillations In Alzheimer's Disease And Future Treatment Options

      Chen, Changqing; Moge, Serena (2022-05-01)
      Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia and involves the deterioration of memory and other important cognitive functions. Despite 1 in 3 seniors dying from AD or another form of dementia, there still remains no cure. An accumulation of amyloid-beta (Aβ) plaques and tau protein aggregates are what characterize AD. There have been medicines developed that target Aβ and tau protein in order to improve symptoms, but these can neither stop nor delay the progression of AD. Instead, most of the medicines available only aid in symptom control and patient comfort. Researchers have begun to search for new theories of pathogenesis, which may assist in creating new treatments that might cure this disease. One novel area of research in this field is the role of gamma oscillations. It is believed that a disruption in gamma brain waves could be a cause of the formation of Aβ and tau protein aggregation. Although changes in gamma wave activity have been linked to several neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders, treatments that restore gamma oscillations to their normal activity have not been investigated widely. The goal of this research is to investigate the current knowledge on AD pathogenesis and treatments, with special emphasis on the impact of gamma oscillations and the exploration of treatments that target restoration of gamma waves.
    • Silly Rabbit, Manipulative Marketing Tactics Are For Kids! – Exploring The Effectiveness Of Ethical Children's Cereal Packaging

      Alves, Brian; Malloy, Mark; Melin, Erin (2022-05-01)
      Through packaging design, designers visually communicate the personality, feel, and quality of a product to potential consumers. When analyzing packaging in the cereal industry, there is a clear line drawn between the playful visual style of cereal targeted at children, and the mature visual style of cereal targeted at adults. Although children’s cereal products are being advertised successfully, the majority of products themselves are often high in sugar, contain artificial flavoring, and include other non-beneficial ingredients. Healthy children’s cereal products rarely receive the same level of engaging and story driven branding that competing unhealthy brands receive. Thus, unethical design standards are used to capitalize off of young children who are unable to fully comprehend advertising efforts. Rather than using design to persuade children into becoming consumers of unhealthy cereal products, the author explored the effects of these tactics when applied to a healthier alternative. She hypothesized that if influential design tactics from unhealthy cereal brands were applied to the packaging of a healthier cereal product, then children may feel visually influenced to try better-for-you options. The author gathered research related to children’s marketing tactics, used her findings to redesign a healthy cereal product, and conducted in person mini-interviews with elementary aged children to test her design against competing brands. Her primary hypothesis was supported, suggesting that children find healthier options with engaging packaging more appetizing and interesting that traditional healthy options. As a result of her study, the author hopes to highlight the importance of ethical design application, and in doing so, encourage positive change within the graphic design and children’s consumer goods industries.
    • A Poke And Prod Into The Attitudes Of College-Aged Students Towards The COVID-19 Vaccine

      Leong, Pamela; Moore, Sara; McCarthy, Morgan (2022-05-01)
      This research investigates the attitudes of college-aged students towards the COVID-19 vaccine. The prediction is that vaccine hesitancy towards the COVID-19 vaccines that exists in the college-aged population is due to misinformation, distrust in vaccines, and being uninformed. To test this hypothesis, a survey was conducted collecting information regarding vaccines and the COVID-19 pandemic from Salem State University students. The results could not confirm the hypothesis since no significant relationships were found due to limitations of the study. Although the hypothesis of this research could not be confirmed, this research provides a foundation for future research that may provide further insight into vaccine hesitancy in the college- aged student population.
    • New Constraints On Formation Of Orthogneiss In Southern Adirondacks Using Integrated Analysis Methods Of Petrology, Zircon U-Pb Geochronology And Whole Rock Geochemistry

      Toraman, Erkan; McCaffery, Kyle (2022-05-01)
      The Adirondack Mountains (ADK) form the southern part of the Grenville Province, a poly-deformed orogenic complex formed in the Mesoproterozoic during the formation of Rodinia. The ADK is subdivided into two domains, separated by the Carthage-Colton Mylonite Zone. The Lowlands are characterized by upper amphibolite-facies metasedimentary rocks, including marbles, evaporites, and volcanic units, whereas the Highlands are formed by granulite-facies meta igneous rocks and anorthosite-mangerite-charnockite-granite magmatic complex. A large suite of granulite-facies orthogneisses exposed in the Southern Highlands yields the oldest (>1.3 Ga) ages, however, those ages come from a limited number of outcrops. We present new petrological, geochemical, and geochronological results from several quartzofeldspatic orthogneiss units to better document the timing and tectonic setting of these rocks. All samples are mainly composed of quartz, felspar, biotite, pyroxene, and opaque minerals. Foliation and lineation are defined by elongated quartz ribbons and feldspar grains, or biotite laminae. High-temperature microstructures, such as flame perthites in feldspars or checkerboard extinction in quartz are commonly observed in thin sections. Major element analyses show that samples have calc-alkaline affinities, suggesting an arc environment. U-Pb zircon geochronology produced two age groups. 1150 Ma ages which are Shawinigan and 1350 Ma ages which are associated with pre-orogenic magmatism. Based on whole rock geochemistry the Shawinigan age rocks are associated with within plate magmatism and the 1350 Ma pre-orogenic magmatism is associated with magmatic arc activity.