• A 21st Century Update of Gender Portrayal in Caldecott Winners

      Gonsalves, Joanna; Black, Nicole (2016-05-01)
      This study replicated previous studies that investigated the portrayal of gender in Caldecott award-winning books. Past studies found that females were nearly invisible. Females tended to be under-represented in titles, central roles, and illustrations (Weitzman, Eifler, Hokada, & Ross, 1972). In addition, they appeared in the illustrations to be indoors more often than outside and displayed gender-typical behavioral traits. The current study utilizes the methods and procedures of past researchers to present an updated account of gender-portrayal in the Caldecott winners for 2010 through 2015. A content analysis, and a character trait analysis were performed to analyze the books. The researchers found no significant increases or decreases for human single-gendered illustrations and human characters. However, there was a significant increase in the percent of females for non-human single-gendered illustrations and non-human characters. In addition, females were over-represented outdoors, which is in contrast to past research. Furthermore, only three traits were rated as being more salient for females than males: nurturant, rescue and traditional role. Compared with past studies, children's books are becoming more gender equitable in terms of representation, location and behavior traits. However, improvements can still be made to reflect the actuality of societal proportions.
    • Accessibility Of Social Service Agencies For Clients With Limited English Proficiency

      Mirick, Rebecca; Musema, Suzanne (2021-05-01)
      This study examined the accessibility of social service agencies in the city of Lynn, Massachusetts for clients with limited English proficiency (LEP). Social service agencies (N=27) participated in phone interviews and/or an online survey, exploring services offered by the agencies, the availability of translation services and if so, in what languages and procedures for providing translation services. Results showed that more than half of the agencies provided oral translation services to clients who prefer to engage in a language other than English by relying on bilingual staff members, and family and friends of the client to act as the interpreters. Many agencies only offered services in Spanish and English. The study's findings offered some important insight into the availability of services to the sizable portion of the city's residents who have LEP status, revealing the disparities that exist in access to language assistance.
    • Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia from the Perspective of Immune Cells: A Book to Help Children Understand Cancer

      Scottgale, Gwen; Aparicio, Irune (2019-05-01)
      Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) is the most common type of childhood cancer. According to the American Cancer Society 3 out of 4 childhood leukemia cases are ALL, and the main treatment for these patients is chemotherapy. There are various tools that doctors and nurses use in order to effectively communicate with these young patients and their families about what this type of leukemia is, and what chemotherapy will do in order to help. There are children’s books on cancer, but they are mostly coping aids or answer general questions. My children’s e-book however invites the young reader (6 to 14-year-olds) into the world of immune cells, by following the life of a T-cell as he learns about his environment and how to interact with other immune cells to fight against ALL and protect their human. The reader also witnesses how the cells react to the chemotherapy, and their journey after treatment. My goal for this creative project is that it will serve as another educational tool for patients with ALL. Also, I hope that it inspires its audience and gets them excited about science. Even though this children’s book is written with scientific detail, the concepts are presented in a simple and attainable way, enabling my young audience to comprehend what ALL is, unlocking their perception towards the disease with this new approach.
    • Adolescent Attitudes Towards Social Media in the Classroom

      Risam, Roopika; Favor, Bryanna (2015-05-01)
      As a future educator, I am concerned with the growing influence of social media in the lives of adolescents. With technology constantly changing, educators must reevaluate their techniques in order to teach effectively. For example, teachers might consider the relationship between students’ attention spans and their social media use. Teachers might also consider the effects of the different styles of writing students read online. This project examines the correlation between high school students' writing habits and their social media usage. Data has been gathered from 19 high school juniors in an AP Language and Composition class. The methodology for this project uses grounded theory research and includes surveys and writing samples. Students completed a survey about their social media usage that asked what websites they use, how often they use these websites, and whether or not they try to use proper spelling and grammar when posting online. In addition to the survey, students also provided an "on demand" writing sample of approximately 180 words. In order to discern any correlation between social media usage and writing habits, data was coded to identify differences in sentence length, spelling/grammar issues, incorrect punctuation usage, usage of transitions, awkward phrasing, and usage of the first person. This study found that there was no correlation between students’ social media habits and their writing styles. However, the data revealed students’ attitudes towards using social media in the classroom, information that is essential for teachers to understand in order to utilize technology effectively.
    • Advancements of Nursing Roles in Pediatric Burn Care

      Leger, Robin; Scherrer, Stephanie (2015-05-01)
      Burns are a common injury for children, especially in toddlers and adolescents. Nurses are in the front line of care and possess many roles within the care of pediatric burn patients. Nursing roles in pediatric burn care can be organized into three major areas of care, including acute, rehabilitative and psychological. it is the roles that nurses carry out that make a difference in the long term quality of life in the pediatric burn patient. Goals and objectives: To address nursing roles in all three major areas of nursing care in pediatric burn care, acute care, rehabilitation care, psychosocial care, long term care and follow-up care.
    • An Analysis of Cycling Infrastructure and Cycling Activity

      Luna, Marcos; Gilroy, Nicholas (2014-05-17)
      Over the last decade, the City of Salem, Massachusetts has made significant investments in infrastructure to support cycling in the City, such as the construction of new bike lanes and cycle paths. To what extent do these investments meet the actual activities and needs of cyclists? What routes do cyclists commonly use? To better understand cyclists' usage of roads in the City of Salem, this research will analyze user-populated information from Strava, a mobile application that records a user's coordinates as they cycle through Salem. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) will be used to analyze and create maps that highlight the aggregate habits of cyclists in Salem and compare those to cycling infrastructure, and public safety. This information can be used to help guide cycling growth and investment in the City of Salem. The research and analysis is valuable for demonstrating the true impact and usage of cyclists on roads in Salem.
    • An Analysis of Operating Environment & Strategy: A Case Study of Tata Motor

      Gu, Jian; Crawford, Michael J (2016-05-01)
      This report provides an in-depth study of the environment in which India-based company Tata Motors competes. In order to understand key aspects of the company, a SWOT analysis was conducted to better determine both the internal and external aspects of the operating environment. Using this analysis in combination with a summary of the conditions in the domestic environment, suggested strategies are given. The purpose of these strategies is to provide creative, beneficial, and resourceful ways Tata can continue to succeed in the highly competitive automobile industry. Along with the general strategies, a brief implementation plan is given to demonstrate how to put these strategies into action.
    • An Analysis Of The Motives Of The British Parliamentary Members, Edmund Burle, Isaac Barré, And Charles James Fox, Who Supported The American Colonists During The American Revolution

      Morrison, Dane; Maib, Nicole (2016-12-01)
      When most people think of the American Revolution, they think of the rebellion by the American colonies to break away from the Parliamentary tyranny happening in the British Government through the taxation policies enforced without the colonists’ representation in Parliament. Many people do not realize that across the sea where the tyranny was coming from, there were also members in Parliament fighting against the taxation policies. These members, called the “Americanists,” were mostly members of the House of Commons. Among their most eminent members were Edmund Burke, Isaac Barré, and Charles James Fox. This thesis analyzed Burke, Barré, and Fox’s motivations and role in Parliament using a variety of both primary and secondary sources including Parliamentary debates, letters, and research by other scholars. The main finding was that each member focused on the principle of the tax and the illegal actions Parliament was taking against the colonies. Each member wanted to bring peace between the Empire and colonies again, restoring the balance that revolved around trade and economic purposes. Parliament was warned by these members that the colonies would keep rebelling and eventually try to break away from the Empire, something the Empire could not afford to lose. Overall, The Americanists, not widely recognized, were essentially proponents of the American Revolution across the sea where the tyranny was coming from, contributing to the overall fight for American liberties and freedom.
    • Analysis of Wheatgrass Endophytes

      MacTaylor, Christine; Clapp, Kimberly (2014-05-17)
      Endophytes are of particular medical interest due to their production of antibiotics. Wheatgrass endophytes were analyzed using a combination of MIC, Gel electrophoresis, GCMS, and TLC. Cultures were successfully grown in gel agarose plates and in sabouraud dextrose broth. All colonies were observed using a dissection microscope. Colonies from the white samples seen on the seed (sabouraud dextrose agar), leaf (sabouraud dextrose agar), seed (coffee agar) and seed (agar) plates were gram stained, with gram negative rods were observed in all samples. Gram positive cocci we observed in the seed (agar) plate. Presence of a long chain methyl ester was observed from the GCMS analysis of samples extracted in methanol. An inhibitory effect was observed on the growth of E. coli and S. aureus after inoculating methanol extracted samples in broth.
    • Analyzing The Relationships Between Alcohol Consumption, Cocaine Use, Relationship Satisfaction And Dependency

      Crone-Todd, Darlene; Miller, Benjamin; Gonsalves, Joanna; McBride, Valerie (2020-05-01)
      Few studies have examined the direct relationship between alcohol consumption and cocaine use while analyzing the impact of social factors on these interactions. This study examined alcohol consumption, cocaine use, and participants’ relationship satisfaction while also investigating the relationships each variable had with alcohol dependency and drug dependency. An online survey was administered through surveymonkey.com to 100 participants through a link that was posted on several Facebook pages and was sent to a university e-mail list. Of these 100 participants, 19 were excluded due to missing information. Significant relationships were found between alcohol variables, social factors, and dependency. No significant relationships between cocaine use and alcohol were found, however alcohol’s involvement in cocaine users reported last use was analyzed as well as how often they used and whom they were with. Some limitations to this study included a small sample and relying on self-reported data.
    • Analyzing The Success Of Social Movements: Social Movement Theories Applied To Occupy Wall Street And The Tea Party

      Mulcare, Dan; Mortillaro, Gaetano (2016-08-01)
      Two significant social movements, Occupy Wall Street and the Tea Party have entered onto the political scene within the last decade, both having significantly different impacts upon the political discourse and political establishment within the United States. The question remains, however, which elements of each movement is ascribed to its corresponding success or failure? Three social movement theories: Resource Mobilization Theory, Political Process Theory, and Collective Identity Theory, better help explain the results of these movements. While none of the individual theories fully explores all the necessary elements required to explain the results of these movements, and each aids the other in exploring both movements more fully, Resource Mobilization Theory best explains each movement’s progress, with a proper focus being placed upon the resources at the disposable of Occupy Wall Street and the Tea Party. Each theory’s effectiveness in explaining both social movements will be measured, on a 3 scale basis, in regards to both group formation and political efficacy.
    • Angler And Voter Perceptions Of Grey Seals On Nantucket

      Jackman, Jennifer; Brook, Brandi (2016-12-01)
      Grey seals came close to extinction prior to enactment of the 1972 Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA). Since the MMPA, seal populations have greatly recovered, especially around Cape Cod and Islands, which has caused controversy between fishing interests and the seals. This article offers insight into the beliefs of Nantucket voters and anglers about seals and their attitudes towards the MMPA. Surveys were mailed to Nantucket voters and administered to anglers on-site. While previous research suggested that anglers would be more anthropocentric and voters more ecocentric, differences were not statistically significant because of the high number of voters who were anglers. However, when voters were subdivided into “non-angler voter” and “angler voter,” and anglers into “non-resident angler” and resident angler,” “non-angler voters” and “non-resident anglers” were found to be more ecocentric while their counterparts were more anthropocentric. Overall acceptance of seals and support for the ecosystem and MMPA was high.
    • Are Future Teachers Ready To Work With Students With Anxiety Disorders?

      Gonsalves, Joanna; Vallario, Katrina (2019-05-01)
      Childhood anxiety has garnered attention over the past couple of decades due to high prevalence rates and early onset (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2013). This study investigated future educators’ attitudes and knowledge regarding childhood anxiety disorders. An original survey was created and administered to education students at a state school in Massachusetts to assess their knowledge about anxiety, gauge their exposure to childhood anxiety, and measure attitudinal ratings about teachers’ role in addressing childhood anxiety. Statistical analyses were conducted to see whether there were any curricular or experiential predictors of participants’ attitudes or knowledge. No statistically significant correlations were found. However, almost all of the participants acknowledged that childhood anxiety was something that will be seen in their classrooms, and nearly half of participants responded with low confidence levels in regard to being adequately prepared to service children with anxiety.
    • Are Private Nonprofit Colleges And Universities In Compliance With Unrelated Business Income Regulations?

      McArdle, John; Bedard, Danielle (2018-01-01)
      Nonprofit status is granted to entities organized for a charitable, educational, religious or scientific purpose. Nonprofits are not liable for income tax on their revenues as long as the revenues are related to their core mission. As colleges and universities struggle in an era of declining resources they often seek alternate streams of revenue; some of these look more like businesses and less like nonprofits. This created the question: are nonprofit colleges and universities complying with the unrelated business income (UBI) laws and regulations? The Internal Revenue Service (IRS) audited a sample of thirty-four college and universities and found that 90% of them were underreporting their UBI. UBI is income generated from any activity that is not related to a nonprofit institutionÕs core mission. Some examples of these activities are: selling clothing, receiving revenue from a fitness center, and offering sports camps over the summer. This study evaluated tax returns from a randomized sample of forty private higher education institutions to determine whether they were compliant with IRS regulations. Several data points were examined to assess the validity of the institution's income reported.
    • Art Driven by Adventure

      Demarjian, Haig; Burke, Erin M. (2014-05-17)
      Diana Vreeland, a famous editor for Vogue Magazine said that "the eye has to travel." I think that this is timelessly true. Travel is an integral part of being a modern creative human. Through travel there comes an opening of the eyes, an expanding of the heart and a refreshing of the soul. Travel exposes our creative minds to new experiences and those experiences are what make each one of us successful and unique as human beings. Each one of us holds infinite creative potential. The ability to create is a very human process that arises out of personal reactions to our life experiences. The art-making process allows our interpretations to take form, captures and moment in time and adds a new piece to the puzzle that is our world. From that piece of art other people will gain a new perspective on our world, and experience their own reaction. Personally, traveling has given rise to a fascination with "place" and what it means to "journey" and how these unique types of experiences have influenced my artwork. In this thesis project, I have examined those journeys that have most heavily influenced my creative process. I explore the idea of travel and examine how a seven week cross country road trip and my study abroad experience helped to broaden my artistic productivity and deepen my connection to my self as a creative being. Also part of my thesis work was the development of an artists website as a non-physical platform, untied to any particular place, where I can organize curate and collect my work. The website can currently be found here: erinburkeart.weebly.com
    • Assessing the Nutritional Health of College Students: An Ethnographic Approach

      Hills, Donna; Forina, Nicole Marie (2016-05-01)
      The culture of college students does not appear to give adequate attention to nutritional health. The purpose of this study seeks to explore whether college students are at risk for imbalanced nutrition. Among the studies reviewed, samples suggest that college students are at risk for imbalanced nutrition due to their financial instability, lack of nutritional knowledge, and inability to obtain healthy foods. The results of this systematic review of the literature suggest that implementations of nutritional education may reduce those risks.
    • The Association of Symptoms of Anxiety in Children Ages 6-12 and the Exposure to Violence in the Media

      Hills, Donna; Crowley, Jacklyn (2014-05-17)
      Through a review of the literature, my research project explored whether or not violence in the media causes symptoms of anxiety in children ages 6-12. It is suspected by multiple child psychologists that violence in the media can affect children and cause them to develop symptoms of anxiety. By reviewing case studies as well as scholarly articles and journals I found that there was some evidence to support this premise as well as evidence that did not. The focus of my literature review was children ages 6-12 because they tend to be impressionable and vulnerable to their experiences. Limitations to this study would include articles that reported studies on age groups other than the childhood age group such as young adults and the adolescent, as well as the manifestation of anxiety and definition of violence defined differently by various authors.
    • Attempting to Create an American Sign Language Curriculum at Salem State University

      Gow, David; Kavanagh, Molly (2016-05-01)
      American Sign Language (ASL) is a non-verbal language that is utilized primarily by the deaf and hard of hearing community. This language contains grammar, morphology and syntax just like any spoken language and is estimated to be the 3rd most commonly used language in the United States. Due to their inability to vocally communicate, those who are Deaf often find themselves at a loss attempting to communicate with those who are hearing. What is even more concerning is that many people know very little about Deaf Culture and never have the opportunity to learn ASL. Many liberal art higher education institutions require students enroll in a World Language course as a part of the curriculum and offer languages such as Spanish, French, Italian and German or even Arabic, Latin or Mandarin Chinese; however, very few universities offer American Sign Language courses. In 2011, at the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA), one student took on the task of creating an ASL curriculum. He noticed that many students on campus had a desire to learn ASL and were frustrated that this class was not offered at the time. He went forward to UCLA Administration and presented them with statistics and information, urging them to begin offering ASL Classes on campus that could be taken as a Foreign Language requirement. The goal of this Thesis Project is to present to the World Language and Culture Department similar information regarding students desire to learn American Sign Language as well as illustrate the inaccessibly of classes at other institutions in the hopes that the University will consider implementing American Sign Language courses in the near future.
    • Attitudes Surrounding Long-Acting Reversible Contraceptive Methods Among Female Undergraduate Nursing Students Over 18 Years Of Age At A Large New England University

      Moske-Weber, Charlene; Nearen, Nicole (2018-01-01)
      Background/Purpose: Long-Acting Reversible Contraceptive (LARC) methods are highly effective methods of birth control including intrauterine devices (IUD) and the implant. There is often a lower rate of usage with these methods due to factors such as high upfront cost, invasive insertion methods, and possible side effects. This research is aimed to understand some of the perceived and actual barriers for usage, as well as to identify any gaps in education regarding this method. Design and Methods: This project was conducted as a qualitative study with 114 total participants. Consent for the study will be implied by completing the survey. The survey will be distributed via the School of Nursing from Survey Monkey. The data was collected via a 10 question survey, which was distributed through the Salem State University School of nursing email server. Results: Respondents had a generalized understanding of long-acting reversible methods, while also having low levels of usage. The data supported that this population, which was predominantly 18-22 years old, had an adequate LARC understanding. However, 55% of women claimed current oral contraceptive use, and only 17% cited current LARC use, despite the high 88% education rate Implications: The study enables healthcare providers and health educators to assess the education needs and barriers that exist with LARC usage. An understanding of LARC methods will help to expand access and understanding of this method.
    • Bacterial Attachment To Microspheres

      Alachi, Peter; Schreiner, Sheila; Troisi, Kathleen (2017-05-01)
      Microspheres are small beads that average around 875 μm in diameter and are found in popular facial soaps and toothpastes. They are popular with consumers which raises the concern over how they impact the environment after they have been used. Our data suggests that bacteria were able to attach to the microspheres and crevices within. But can be detached when subjected to different rates of saline solution washes. Since these microspheres can stay intact in water, there are many concerns over their impacts on marine and freshwater life and environments.