• The Rebirth of Chile in Relation to Childbirth and Female Pain

      Valens, Keja (2013-01-01)
      Chilean novelists Isabel Allende and Diamela Eltit wrote during a time in which Augusto Pinochet’s reign created chaos within the government and suffering for its citizens. In the works The House of the Spirits by Allende and The Fourth World by Eltit, emphasis is placed on the female characters’ inability to have full freedom of speech, and also how the burdens of conceiving a child and giving birth became not just an infliction upon their bodies but upon their existence as women in a disadvantaged society. By analyzing the conceptions, pregnancies, and births of various characters in the novels while referencing how society treated women during Pinochet’s dictatorship, this paper will reveal that childbirth is used as a metaphor for the birth of a new Chile.
    • Burgeoning Biraciality: What It Means To Be a Young Mulatto In America Today

      Jaros, Michael (2013-05-18)
      In the form of 25 open-ended questions, I interviewed six half-black, half-white Salem State University students to seek their uncensored experiences in defining themselves and their world as biracial people. I endeavored to build upon the little existing literature that focused on the complexities of being "mulatto" - a loaded term in and of itself. Transitioning from a once uncommon, disgraced, and shamed community, half-black, half-white individuals now represent the largest group of biracial people in America, which comes with its own modern challenges and triumphs. In the vein of Lise Funderburg's Black, White, Other, these six narratives weave together a complex tapestry of valuable memories, perspectives, and insights that each of these young mulattos possesses. I share the text of these interviews in conjunction with photographs I shot of each interviewee, which add an intimate visual dimension to each narrative. I also include a personal introduction to the project, which explains the inspiration for my undertaking as a part of my own biracial journey. Furthermore, the thesis reveals the benefits of engaging in curious and honest conversations about race - the ways it helps shed light on America's past, and how it can create more understanding and respect between individuals and groups alike in the present. Along with the thesis, there are 18 additional files, including the text of the six interviews and 2 photographs of each interviewee.
    • Studies in Angle and Shape: Paintings by Matt Curley

      Malloy, Mark (2013-05-18)
      Paintings completed over the course of two semesters serve as the basis for this art exhibition in the Winfisky Gallery at Salem State University’s Ellison Campus Center. Abstract paintings in a variety of media explore visual themes such as landscape and architecture and make up a series of large and small canvases, as well as shaped panels. Each painting’s color palette relates to the natural landscape, but the mostly geometric compositions reflect inspiration found in both geology and architecture. The larger works expand upon ideas established in the smaller, mostly acrylic paintings but use more varied media to create layers of visual information and texture. An artist statement will be displayed alongside the paintings in the gallery. The exhibition will give me an opportunity to present a coherent body of work to the school community.
    • Milan Kundera and the Narrative Self

      Deere, Michael (2013-12-01)
      In my thesis, I looked at several of Milan Kundera's novels to explore the relationship between the self and narratives. Specifically, I was interested in how narrative shapes the perception of our selves, both from internal and external perspectives. Using particular characters and historical contexts from Kundera's novels, I also argue from a non-traditional notion of truth that neither an inner or inhabited self nor a perceived external self can authoritatively claim to be more real or fundamental than the other. I argue that because the two are so intimately connected, even self-perception is impossible independent of a narrative.
    • SSU Water Quality

      MacTaylor, Christine (2013-12-01)
      The purpose of this research was to see how the water around Salem State University's campus fared with that of national standards. Since water can contain many contaminants such as metals, pesticides, and toxins, it is important to know if standards are being upheld. The metals copper (Cu), iron (Fe), calcium, (Ca), and zinc (Zn) were tested, along with the non-metal fluoride (F). The atomic absorption machine (AA) was used to find the concentration of each metal in parts per million (ppm). A new fluoride ion-selective electrode was used to determine the concentration of the fluoride in ppm in the water samples. The water tested was taken from each residence hall and campus building, and from multiple sources in each building. The main objective was to see if Salem State University's water was up to standards.
    • The Hour to End the SAT I Test in College Admissions

      Aske, Jon (2013-12-01)
      Exploration of student performances on the SAT I exam reveal race-based scoring trends. The ability of White students to consistently outperform their Latino counterparts highlights the tests’ racial bias. By using SAT I test scores as criteria to be admitted into universities, educational institutions are acting as promoters of racial inequality. Focusing on themes of the test’s capacity to measure innate intelligence, accommodations being made for ELL students, school funding discrepancies between races, and the ideology of colorblindness, I will show why it is time to reconsider the SAT I exam as a part of the college admissions process
    • Correspondence by Serial Killers: A Review

      Kuehnle, Kristen (2013-12-01)
      I will be reviewing characteristics and letters written to other serial killers during the same time frame that Charles Manson's followers were killing for him. The purpose of this review is to determine whether Charles Manson has similar characteristics. The sample will be white males because Charles Manson was Caucasian. This criterion will control for my error margin. White males have committed the majority of serial killings and there is more literature on them than female serial killers or non-white serial killers. This review will be to identify patterns between other serial killer's characteristics and see if they are present in Charles Manson or not. This information will be vital when it comes to my conclusion about whether or not Charles Manson should be considered a serial killer, even though he never performed any of the killings himself.
    • Teachers' Views of Inclusion and Social Development: A Comparative Analysis of Practices and Beliefs

      Gonsalves, Joanna (2013-12-01)
      This thesis examines teachers' attitudes towards social skill development and beliefs towards inclusion and social integration in their young students with disabilities, while also examining some of their current practices. With the increasing push toward integrating classrooms, it is important to pay attention to how teachers are adapting to having more students with disabilities in their classrooms and how they are approaching developing social skills among their students. Children with special needs can be at a disadvantage because of the decreased amount of attention paid to their socialization. A sample of elementary teachers, special education teachers, administrators and counselors were surveyed to ascertain their views on the topic, including whether teaching social skills is seen as important or not, what age to start teaching social skills, how much room in curricula do teachers have for developing social skills, and their views on the inclusion of special education students in the general education classroom. The main objective of the study was to compare attitudes and beliefs about inclusion and social integration that are held by elementary teachers with those held by special education teachers, administrators and counselors. Differences emerged in the practical application of social skill training strategies, and in the beliefs about when children should receive the most focused social skill training.
    • Mind Changers: Processes of Deliberation and Persuasion in a Civil Retail Discrimination Case

      Evett, Sophia (2014-01-01)
      This research seeks to expand on the results of a mock jury civil trial study conducted by Sophia R. Evett, Anne-Marie G. Hakstian, & Liisa A. Burk (2012). In this study, 124 participants were placed on one of 20 juries (10 with black participants and 10 without). All participants were then asked to read a case involving an incident, at a department store. After reading the case, (Harmon vs. Reilly’s Department Store), participants were told that the plaintiff’s claim was either based on racial discrimination or unlawful detention. Deliberation analysis allowed researchers to observe topics used by jurors to persuade other jurors to change their mind from either siding with the plaintiff or the defendant. Results suggest that statements expressing empathy for the plaintiff were more prevalent when jurors found for the plaintiff while statements expressing a lack of empathy were found in juries that sided with the defendant. Statements implying that the case lies on a continuum (statements such as “His actions were not too extreme” or “Some things were right and some things were wrong”) were correlated with a finding for the defendant. Lastly juries that mentioned that the store followed policy were more likely to find for the defendant while statements about the store not following policy did not have an affect on the outcome of the case.
    • Embracing the Female Theatrical Perspective: Directing Sophie Treadwell's "Machinal"

      Sampieri, Peter (2014-05-01)
      The whole of this project includes my direction of the fully realized production of the play Machinal by Sophie Treadwell, and the research and analysis that was required in order to mount the show. Dramaturgical research, script analysis, process logs, and the design work of the respective designers are all included elements. The role of the director is to lead and inspire a team of creative individuals in order to help tell the story of the play at hand. it is important that this project occurred because as a female director, it is a rarity to be able to direct a play that has been written by a woman, which focuses on a female protagonist. Please visit the Honors Lounge to experience the full thesis. Materials include: design information, dramaturgy, sound clips, video, and dialogue analysis.
    • Art Driven by Adventure

      Demarjian, Haig (2014-05-17)
      Diana Vreeland, a famous editor for Vogue Magazine said that "the eye has to travel." I think that this is timelessly true. Travel is an integral part of being a modern creative human. Through travel there comes an opening of the eyes, an expanding of the heart and a refreshing of the soul. Travel exposes our creative minds to new experiences and those experiences are what make each one of us successful and unique as human beings. Each one of us holds infinite creative potential. The ability to create is a very human process that arises out of personal reactions to our life experiences. The art-making process allows our interpretations to take form, captures and moment in time and adds a new piece to the puzzle that is our world. From that piece of art other people will gain a new perspective on our world, and experience their own reaction. Personally, traveling has given rise to a fascination with "place" and what it means to "journey" and how these unique types of experiences have influenced my artwork. In this thesis project, I have examined those journeys that have most heavily influenced my creative process. I explore the idea of travel and examine how a seven week cross country road trip and my study abroad experience helped to broaden my artistic productivity and deepen my connection to my self as a creative being. Also part of my thesis work was the development of an artists website as a non-physical platform, untied to any particular place, where I can organize curate and collect my work. The website can currently be found here: erinburkeart.weebly.com
    • A Literature Review of the Onset of Social Media and its Effect on HIPPA Violations

      Magazzu, Tammi (2014-05-17)
      Social media has become increasingly popular in the United States and is accessed daily. It consists of different websites such as Facebook and Twitter. Access to these websites is easy and fast, allowing users to frequently network. In many situations, social media can be utilized in a positive manner. However, in fields such as nursing, social media can be detrimental. The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, HIPAA, provides specific and strict regulations regarding the use of social media in the medical field. Breaching patient confidentiality can jeopardize a nurse’s job and future career. With the onset of social media, HIPAA violations have increased. This thesis will provide a literature review of social media and its onset, and how it affected HIPAA. I will show how these websites have caused more violations of HIPAA, and provide interventions and suggestions to decrease the violations. Specific methods will be included to show how the problem can be fixed. In addition, a brief history of social media will be provided to illustrate how it is extremely prevalent.
    • Effective Instructional Practices in the Inclusive Classroom

      Wiersma, Geertje E. (2014-05-17)
      The Individuals With Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) requires that children with disabilities are educated in the "least restrictive environment appropriate” to meet their “unique needs.”-- otherwise known as an inclusive setting. How do teacher attitudes and practices correlate with effective inclusive education? Studies show that if a teacher gives students higher expectations, they are more likely to perform to higher standards. Thus, by giving a student with disabilities the opportunity to be included in a general education classroom, they are usually held to a higher standard. However, whether this motivates or discourages the student is then based on the teacher’s attitude and school’s resources. In this qualitative study, 61 hours were spent observing two second grade classrooms in the same town, but at schools with different demographics. One of the schools contained students primarily from lower socio-economic backgrounds, while the other school contained students who were predominately middle class. Data was recorded in a chart that contained instructional practices in inclusion classrooms. The results show that teacher attitudes and practices differed significantly in the two classrooms observed in that positive teacher attitudes and use of encouraging language, effective socialization, support services, and balanced exposure to flexible grouping strategies—all key factors for effective inclusive education, were much more prominent in one of the two classrooms observed. Future research should be conducted over a greater period of time and in a greater variety of classrooms for more accurate results.
    • Looking Through the Eyes of Primary School Teachers: A Study of How White Teachers Talk About Race

      Leith, Chad (2014-05-17)
      A study of how White Primary teachers talk about race was conducted. Two different schools districts from Massachusetts were chosen, along with three different teachers from each district that represented a range of different grade levels. One suburban town North of Boston, Massachusetts, was comprised of primarily White students, while one urban city North of Boston, Massachusetts, was primarily composed of a diversified population of students. After conducting a series of interviews with teachers from each representative school district, results were analyzed to conclude two different teaching strategies used by White teachers when talking about race - a proactive teaching approach and a reactive teaching approach. Both of these teaching approaches proved to be important for all teachers to employ in order to be able to respond to their students' questions about race, as well as appropriately plan different lessons and units that highlight this important topic that impacts the lives of students throughout the United States.
    • Video Games and Misogyny: Understanding the Relationship

      Leong, Pamela (2014-05-17)
      This study uses survey method in a state college in Massachusetts to gauge whether or not a relationship exists between frequency of video game playing and levels of misogyny. A survey was administered to ~100 students, male and female, to discern frequency of video game playing and levels of misogyny. A literature review revealed that video game playing does result in negative feelings towards women in women, as well as men. Literatures also indicate that representation of women in video games is troublesome as well. The study did not find significance in its hypothesis, but still dug into a fairly new avenue of media and ideas on gender.
    • Kathleen Clarke: Connecting the Competing Definitions of Women's Identity in Irish Nationalism

      Shea, Margo (2014-05-17)
      The modern nationalist movement (1916-1936) presented a contradiction for Irish women. On the one hand, they were being called to perform their responsibilities as citizens by extending their patriotism outside the home and taking a more active role in the fate of their country. On the other, Irish nationalism relied heavily on tradition; women were generally seen as the keepers of that tradition. Nationalist women struggled to respond to the competing responsibilities of their traditional domestic role and the emerging roles as citizens in a new nation. This paper examines Kathleen Clarke as a case study in how nationalist Irishwomen balanced their responsibilities as citizens in the new nation with their traditional roles as wives and mothers. Kathleen Clarke was the wife of one of the executed leaders of the Easter Rising and the sister of another. She was very involved in the nationalist movement and in Irish politics. After the Rising, she was left as a single mother of three small boys while also managing a fund for the dependents of imprisoned rebels. She eventually became a senator and then the first female Lord Mayor of Dublin. In her struggles to balance responsibilities in both the domestic and public spheres of her life, Kathleen Clarke embodied the ways that the new nation simultaneously created and restricted personal, cultural and political opportunities for women in Ireland after independence.
    • An Analysis of Cycling Infrastructure and Cycling Activity

      Luna, Marcos (2014-05-17)
      Over the last decade, the City of Salem, Massachusetts has made significant investments in infrastructure to support cycling in the City, such as the construction of new bike lanes and cycle paths. To what extent do these investments meet the actual activities and needs of cyclists? What routes do cyclists commonly use? To better understand cyclists' usage of roads in the City of Salem, this research will analyze user-populated information from Strava, a mobile application that records a user's coordinates as they cycle through Salem. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) will be used to analyze and create maps that highlight the aggregate habits of cyclists in Salem and compare those to cycling infrastructure, and public safety. This information can be used to help guide cycling growth and investment in the City of Salem. The research and analysis is valuable for demonstrating the true impact and usage of cyclists on roads in Salem.
    • Literature Review of Kennedy Terminal Ulcers: Identification, Diagnosis, Nursing Goals, and Interventions

      Vera, Rachel (2014-05-17)
      Although not greatly researched, the paucity of available literature theorizes that Kennedy Terminal Ulcers (KTUs) are clinical indications of skin failure. Through a review of the literature, the topics of: (1) methods of KTU identification, (2) how to make a proper nursing diagnosis, and (3) suggested nursing interventions will be discussed. Included in this literature review are anecdotal articles written by experienced healthcare professionals working in the hospice and palliative care fields. Case studies which focus on the development and treatment of KTUs incurred by end-of-life patients receiving hospice or palliative care services are also presented. The available literature corroborates that there are five characteristic wound criteria that serve to identify and diagnose KTUs. Though clinical professionals have different approaches on how to treat KTUs, the current literature concurs that nursing interventions should include: adequate pain control, hemorrhage prophylaxis, effective wound dressings, exudate management, infection prophylaxis, effective debridement methods, and odor control. Limitations encountered by the clinicians studying the development and treatment of KTUs include ethical dilemmas (i.e. inducing patient fatigue, inflicting emotional distress, or occupying the patient's valuable time as they approach end of life) and limited awareness of the existence of KTUs. Further research is needed to raise awareness of the existence of KTUs and how they are indicative of skin failure, for they must be identified, diagnosed, and treated accordingly so nurses are able to better advocate for the patient and ensure quality comfort care is provided as the patient approaches end of life.
    • The Road to Whistleblowing: A Review Through Cases

      Bandyopadhyay, Jayanti (2014-05-17)
      Numerous corporate scandals in the recent years have left the public wondering as to why situations such as cooking the books and other fraudulent activity go unreported for so long. Many times employees are aware of such frauds developing in their companies, but they fail to speak out because of fear. Yet fear is only one of the major reasons why potential whistleblowers hesitate immensely when considering blowing the whistle. Laws prior to these scandals did little to protect whistleblowers from negative results such as retaliation from employers. As a result, the public did not know frauds in companies until they became extremely out of hand and were as a result, highly publicized. The problem with not reporting frauds until they are massive is the fact that they become extremely costly and often cost taxpayers millions of dollars. This research will be based on the analysis of several whistleblowing cases in order to evaluate the effectiveness of whistleblowing laws in providing appropriate protection to whistleblowers. It will not only provide information on each case, but also will go into the several negative repercussions that each whistleblower faced after blowing the whistle. The purpose of this research is to provide business students as well as the public with more information regarding the concerns of whistleblowers when attempting to blow the whistle, as well as with current laws that are in place for the protection of whistleblowers such as the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and Dodd-Frank Act of 2010.
    • A Literature Review of the Negative Impact of Dementia on the Nutritional Status of Hospitalized Elderly Patients

      Frost, Marion (2014-05-17)
      Dementia is a progressive psychological disorder in the elderly population that leads to cognitive impairment and can have an impact on many areas of their life, especially nutrition. It is very common to see hospitalized dementia patients not receiving proper nutrition because they are unable to feed themselves, and often are not provided with the help they need. Nutrition is often a topic that is overlooked in the hospital setting because of the narrow focus on the patient’s diagnosis that caused their admission. Dementia is also a disease that may not be diagnosed until it has progressed to later stages, with the person suffering for many years before interventions take place. This is a very important issue in nursing because malnutrition can lead to further illness and a delay of healing in the elderly, leading to prolonged hospital stays, readmissions, and reoccurring health problems in these patients. This thesis will be a review of medical and nursing journals that look at the impact of dementia on proper nutrition in the hospitalized patients and the different nursing interventions that are used to improve nutrition in these patients. I will also make suggestions for changes in these nursing interventions to improve their effectiveness. A review of the epidemiology of dementia and nutrition requirements of the elderly person will also be included in this thesis.