• Selecting President Wilson's Army: The Draft And Immigration In Six Massachusetts Communities

      Darien, Andrew; Grimes, Charles (2013-05)
      In 2008, as I prepared for a travel-study trip led by Salem State University Professors Christopher E. Mauriello and Stephen Matchak to parts of France and Belgium where the Western Front of World War I had been, I found a list of the men from my hometown, Beverly, Massachusetts, who had died in military service during that war. I was struck by two things. First, the names on the list included many names that were on street corners, bridges, parks, and athletic fields that I had used and passed by nearly every day of my life, never knowing why those names were affixed. Second, judging by the surnames, the men represented a wide array of ethnic backgrounds. I knew that Beverly at the time of World War I had a diverse economic and ethnic composition. It was home to both a world-leading factory and to the residences of some of the wealthiest families in the United States. Old Yankee money shared the City with the immigrants and children of immigrants who mainly worked tended the great estates or in a gigantic factory. Those immigrants and children of immigrants were participants and descendants of the participants in the massive waves of immigration that the United States had received in the nineteenth and early twentieth century. For men of my generation, the heavy hand of the Vietnam War draft had not fallen equally on all, though I was among the lucky ones with a draft lottery number that guaranteed I would never be called. Like some of America’s earlier wars, Vietnam had seemed like a rich man’s war, but a poor man’s fight. I wondered how the diverse group of Beverly men had come to be in the World War I army; had they served willingly, by a draft, or both. That curiosity set me on the course that produced this thesis, which is an attempt to answer two questions: 1) Why did the United States adopt a draft, despite long-standing tradition of using mainly volunteer war-time forces and adverse experience with the draft? and 2) Did anti-immigrant feeling very strong at the time affect who was sent to war?
    • Is Storytelling Dead?: Finding Walter Benjamin's "Story" in the Modern Fantasy Genre

      Nowka, Scott; Theis, Jeffrey; Young, Stephenie; Clifton, Jeanne (2014-05-01)
      Walter Benjamin in his 1936 essay "The Storyteller" identifies the quintessential elements of a style of writing he terms the story, found in folktales and epics, which he contrasts to the modern novel. While Benjamin believed that this form of narrative was dying out, by looking at the works of Robert Jordan and Patrick Rothfuss this paper will prove that this type of narrative is still in existence today and found frequently in the modern fantasy genre.
    • Whales, Legs, Harpoons, and Other Things: Methodological Fetishism and the Human-Object Relationship in Moby-Dick

      Nowka, Scott; DeFrancis, Theresa; Button, Catherine (2014-05-01)
      This work means to examine Moby-Dick through Bill Brown's use of methodological fetishism and to build upon his argument. The human-object dialectic is explored and flipped, providing a view of the novel in which the objects take precedent and create a collection of quasi-objects that distorts the typical approach of analysis through human action and thought. The objects in the novel act upon the humans in ways of their own - telling stories, taking on different roles, commanding the crew, and creating and destroying their quasi-object human counterparts.
    • Picture This: Representation, Photographs, and the Contemporary American Memoir

      Young, Stephenie; Mulman, Lisa; Caron, Lyndsay (2014-05-01)
      This thesis explores significant issues of representation pertinent to the contemporary American memoir such as "truthfulness," memory, and trauma. It also examines the ways in which individual memoirists encounter and address these issues, especially in regards to the memoirists' incorporation of photographs into their narratives . The central works discussed in this thesis include the following memoirs: Let's Pretend This Never Happened: A Mostly True Memoir (2012) written by Jenny Lawson, Half in Shade: Family, Photography, and Fate (2012) written by Judith Kitchen, and Dorothy Allison's 1996 memoir Two or Three Things I Know For Sure. Chapter one of this thesis focuses on issues of representing one's story "truthfully" and Lawson's use of photographs as "proof' of her hard-to-believe stories in Let's Pretend This Never Happened: (A Mostly True Memoir ) . The next chapter centers on the representation of memory and postmemory, as well as Kitchen's use of photographs in her attempt to revive the past in Half in Shade: Family, Photography, and Fate. The final chapter is concerned with troubles of representing trauma and Allison's use of photographs in Two or Three things I Know For Sure to potentially help her say what she struggles to say with words alone. Throughout this thesis, the ways in which the photographs function as well as to what extent they aid and/or complicate representation is explored in addition to the question of why they are being included in memoir more and more frequently .
    • What She Left Behind and Other Stories

      Flynn, Regina; Kessler, Rod; Young, Stephenie; Merritt, Kayleigh (2014-05-01)
      What She Left Behind & Other Stories is a collection of short stories in which the emotional and mental stability of the characters is explored. In writing these stories, I wanted to know: What happens when someone gives away so much of themselves that there is nothing left? Why do we hand ourselves over to begin with? What is it like to live through the sudden onslaught of a mental disorder? What are the different ways we cope with love? With loss? And above all, I wanted to explore the challenge of narrators who are unreliable because of the way these mental and emotional factors play on their ability to rationalize.
    • The Female Experience of War in Tim O'Brien's "The Things They Carried"

      Mulman, Lisa; Young, Stephenie; Dabrieo, Katherine M (2014-05-01)
      Unlike most male authors of traditional war literature, Tim O'Brien includes women in the experience of war in The Things They Carried by creating complex female characters who are as changed by the Vietnam War as the soldiers themselves.
    • Terrorizing Islam: Building American Identity in the 9/11 Novel

      Riss, Arthur; Young, Stephenie; Sullivan, Rob (2014-05-01)
      In the years after 9/11, a number of novels appeared that purported to examine the perspectives of both Islamic fundamentalist terrorists and American Muslims . While ostensibly giving their American audiences an insight into an Islamic perspective, what these novels are actually unconsciously doing is using their Muslim characters to create a new sense of American identity in the post-9/11world where older conceptions of American identity have been disrupted by the violent intrusion of an alien presence . Drawing upon the work of Edward Said and Toni Morrison, this thesis will examine the ways John Updike's Terrorist, Amy Waldman's, The Submission, and Don DeliIIo's Falling Man, construct a Muslim Other in order to create an American identity. The presence of the Muslims in these novels serves as an occasion for the Americans to explore their new identities after 9/11,where American exceptionalism and such American qualities once constructed as intrinsic and essential as freedom, inviolability, and tolerance are called into question
    • Adapting the Language of Postcolonial Subjectivity: Mimicry and the Subversive Art of Kent Monkman

      Valens, Keja; Young, Stephenie; Bick, Michael (2014-05-01)
      This thesis explores the complex means by which Native American colonial subjectivity is constituted by a hegemonic epistemology that imbricates race, gender, and sexuality through a language of social hierarchy. By way of racial and gender marginalization, the Native American subject has become a means of authenticating the dominant Euroamerican class. 19th century artists of the American frontier, such as George Catlin and Paul Kane, contributed to an aesthetic tradition that perpetuated the silencing of a Native North American voice and upheld the social hierarchy instituted during colonialism. Through a close reading of the queer and racial images in Canadian/Cree artist Kent Monkman's paintings Artist and Model and Si je t'aime, prends garde a toi,which confront Catlin and Kane's aesthetic legacy, this thesis explores the question of resisting the social oppressions of colonial subjectivity through consenting to that subjectivity.
    • The Exodus From Andover: Migration Case Studies, 1700-1750

      Baker, Emerson; Chapman-Adisho, Annette; Austin, Brad; Whitworth, Kimberly A. (2014-12-01)
      This thesis begins by examining the work of Philip Greven in his book Four Generations, which is about the early settlement of Andover, Massachusetts. In Four Generations, Greven argues that a land shortage forced the third and fourth generations to migrate away from the town and seek their fortunes in the wilderness. The focus of this thesis develops into a consideration of the settlement patterns and the prosperity of the third generation who chose to leave Andover, Massachusetts, those who struck out into the wilderness of Windham County, Connecticut. What happened to this pioneering migratory generation of the early 18th-century? Do the economic and social patterns found in Connecticut replicate patterns found in the original settlement patterns of early Massachusetts towns? And even more importantly, this thesis asks who were these migrants? These questions are answered by examining vital records in Massachusetts and Connecticut. In addition, deed and probate records in both states have been reviewed as well. From the information and evidence gleaned from these records, biographical sketches of five migrants and their families were created to help us understand the relative success or failure of their migratory experience.
    • On Time, History, And Metaphysics: The Thought of Cormac McCarthy and Walter Benjamin

      Mulman, Lisa; Jaros, Michael; Valens, Keja; Bishop, Jonathan (2015-01-01)
      Walter Benjamin and Cormac McCarthy — one a German philosopher and critic, the other an American novelist, playwright, and screenwriter — have much in common. Stylistically, both use a mixture of short and long but poetic phrases that seem to cut right through to the heart. There is also the matter of historical examination. Benjamin most famously said that "there is no document of civilization which is not at the same time a document of barbarism." McCarthy would likely agree: consider his Blood Meridian, which pits the monstrous Judge Holden against everyone else, and Captain White's crew, to which the Judge belongs, against Native Americans, who are also quite violent. McCarthy, like Benjamin, explores the meaning of storytelling. For instance, the father, in The Road, informs his son of the world that has now crumbled into dust; both of them inhabit a post-apocalyptic landscape. Finally, both writers alternate between a materialism and an understanding of the mystical, the metaphysical, the transcendent side of existence, occupying a sort of liminal space. This paper will explore these connections. It will focus on the following McCarthy novels: The Road, No Country for Old Men, and Blood Meridian. And, for Benjamin: Illuminations, Selected Writings, paying particular attention to "Theses on the Philosophy of History" and "The Storyteller."
    • The Limits of Jawaharlal Nehru's Asian Internationalism and Sino-Indian Relations, 1949-1959

      Louro, Michele; Segil, Rosie Tan (2015-01-01)
      This paper seeks to provide the genesis of the decline of Jawaharlal Nehru's friendly relations with China and of his foreign policy doctrine of Asian Internationalism by examining two key moments: the Panchsheel Treaty of 1954 and the Bandung Conference of 1955. Paradoxically, these international events sowed the seeds from which Nehru's non-aligned movement would arise. Nehru cast away his cherished vision of Asian solidarity, succumbing to the nationalistic currents of state building and the geopolitical trap of the Cold War.
    • Traumatic Dualities: Religion and Recovery in African-American Women's Writing

      Risam, Roopika; Althea, Terenzi (2015-08-01)
      The thesis explores the sacred in three modern African American novels: Beloved by Toni Morrison (1987), Praisesong for the Widow by Paule Marshall (1983), and The Color Purple by Alice Walker (1970). These novels include female protagonists who have undergone various traumas, though all of their traumas extend from their positions as black women in white male dominated America. The inclusion of both Western and African religious elements relates to their individual and cultural traumas, and patterns in sacred motifs in each novel are read as paths to reconciliation.
    • From Paradise to Plantation: Environmental Change in 17th Century Barbados

      Chomsky, Avi; Cray, Ainsley (2015-08-01)
      This paper examines the ways in which the environment of Barbados was altered after the founding of an English colony on the island in 1627. The rate and manner of change is addressed, as well as the ecology of the island before English colonization. Before English occupation, Barbados was primarily covered in thick tropical rainforest, and had no human population. Within several decades of settlement, the island was almost exclusively covered in sugar cane plantations, and supported a dense human population. The paper also looks at the consequences of environmental alteration. The change to a plantation ecology made many islanders wealthy and powerful, and made Barbados a major player in the world economy. But the changes made to the island ecosystem also impacted the health and mortality of the inhabitants, the economic growth of the colony, the prevalence of food shortages, and the heavy reliance on slave labor from Africa. Many of these consequences continued even after the 17th century, and some can be seen today.
    • Types of Photographic Inquiry and Their Effects on the Collective Memory of Genocide

      Samantha, Aiello (2015-08-01)
      Beginning in the 20th century the progression of photography and the reoccurrence of genocide collided and perpetuated a new kind of widespread collective memory. While the idea that groups of people shared a collective memory was theorized prior to the dissemination of photography, photographic inquiry into genocide initiated a global collective memory. As photography expanded with new technology and creativity the ways in which genocide was photographed changed as well and images started to play an even larger roll in these historical atrocities. Now, diverse types of photographs have the power to impact the collective memory in various ways. Images of mass graves, landscapes, street photography, family photographs and portraits hold different influence over collective memory and force it to be accessed, used, and remembered in specific ways.
    • The Burning Question: Early U.S. Radiology and X-Ray Burns, 1896-1904

      Chomsky, Avi; Ford, Benjamin James (2016-01-01)
      Early radiologists experienced occupational injuries that they called x-ray burns. Between 1896 and 1904, early U.S. radiologists debated the cause of these injuries. Using the American X-Ray Journal, I identify at least half a dozen competing theories. Notably, early U.S. radiologists seemed to resist the conclusion that their injuries were directly caused by exposure to x-rays. I argue that the early U.S. radiologists demonstrated vocational bias against concluding that the technology around which they were forging a new discipline was inherently dangerous. I also argue that this bias was left unchecked by a dearth of conclusive evidence that x-ray burns were directly caused by exposure to x-rays.
    • Above Average in New York City

      Scrimgeour, J.D.; Anonymous (2016-01-01)
      A dance memoir featuring scenes of New York and reflections on the life of a young, female artist. The author has chosen to redact portions of the memoir
    • Auschwitz Has Formal Consequences: Imre Kertész and "The Rule of Metaphor"

      Mulman, Lisa; Sullivan, Jill (2016-01-01)
      This thesis undertakes a formal analysis of the work of Hungarian Holocaust survivor and Nobel Prize winner Imre Kertész. Looking at his four novels published in English, I argue that Kertész employs his experience in the concentration camps as a master metaphor for understanding contemporary society. Exploring the work of a variety of scholars, including linguist and philosopher Paul Ricoeur's treatise The Rule of Metaphor, I investigate how Kertész uses specific narrative strategies to create a new language commensurate with the ethical imperative to illuminate the meaning of existence in a post-Holocaust world.
    • Developing Assessment Methods to Benefit Middle School Art Students

      Black, Meg; Melo, Christine (2016-01-01)
      The purpose of this study was to determine what assessment rubrics middle school art students find most beneficial. The need for more reliable and effective assessment tools for visual arts teachers is addressed. Literature is reviewed on the risks and benefits of assessment in art education; the variety of assessment strategies that are available for art teachers; and how to design a scoring rubric, which is the most common assessment strategy used among art teachers. Eighth-grade art students in Massachusetts were surveyed to determine which of three rubrics were most helpful to them. The results allow art teachers to better understand how to communicate students’ grades through rubrics, how much information to include in rubrics, and students’ preferred rubric formats. This study can help art teachers develop rubrics that are consistent with what students find most useful and maximize the benefits that assessment can provide to art students.
    • Facing Trauma Through Art: Arab Women's War Narratives

      Young, Stephenie; Hashem, Danah (2016-01-01)
      This thesis examines samples of fiction, visual art, and photography by Arab women as testimonies to wartime traumas suffered within their home nations. This thesis examines non-consensual photographic representations of sexual assault. Photographic representations of sexual assault impact how American culture not only sees but also treats survivors of sexual assault. These photographs, however, represent sexual assault, not assault survivors. Representations circulated by someone other than the survivor do not narrate her experience and may in fact risk silencing and suppressing her. Therefore, representations of sexual assault are most survivor-positive when they are created and distributed by the survivor herself Using the Steubenville rape case and Emma Sulkowicz's case, this thesis explores the risks that circulations of non-consensual representations can have on survivors.
    • "A Creature for Whom Art Can Do Nothing": Femininity, Performance, and Gender Subversion in The Wild Irish Girl and Mansfield Park

      Valens, Keja; Jaros, Michael; Grandmont, Megan (2016-01-01)
      Both Owenson's The Wild Irish Girl and Austen's Mansfield Park feature female protagonists whose performances — musical, theatrical, and social — help construct their performances of a particular kind of gender identity, that of the natural woman. The natural woman is a gender ideal that is supposedly artless, truthful, and opposed to performance. However, in performing, often sincerely, the role of the natural woman, through explicit forms of performance like music and theatre and through gender performance, the women of these texts achieve the subversion of otherwise strictly mandated gender roles. By playing their sanctioned part to a hyperbolic extreme, The Wild Irish Girl's Glorvina and Mansfield Park's Fanny redirect the fundamental qualities of the character they play — truthfulness, purity, naturalness —in a way that allows them to gain the agency to make political and personal choices that would otherwise be disallowed.